Theories of learning have historically taken, as their starting point, the assumption that learning processes have universal applicability. This position has been argued on grounds of parsimony, but has received two significant challenges: first, from the observation that some kinds of learning, such as spatial learning, seem to obey different rules from others, and second, that some kinds of learning take place in processing modules that are separate from each other. These challenges arose in the behavioural literature but have since received considerable support from neurobiological studies, particularly single neuron studies of spatial learning, confirming that there are indeed separable (albeit highly intercommunicating) processing modules in the brain, which may not always interact (within or between themselves) according to classic associative principles. On the basis of these neurobiological data, reviewed here, it is argued that rather than assuming universality of associative rules, it is more parsimonious to assume sets of locally operating rules, each specialized for a particular domain. By this view, although almost all learning is associative in one way or another, the behavioural-level characterization of the rule...Continue Reading
Head-direction cells in the rat posterior cortex. I. Anatomical distribution and behavioral modulation
Inactivation of hippocampus or caudate nucleus with lidocaine differentially affects expression of place and response learning
Hippocampal place fields are altered by the removal of single visual cues in a distance-dependent manner
Cues that hippocampal place cells encode: dynamic and hierarchical representation of local and distal stimuli
Delay-dependent impairment of a matching-to-place task with chronic and intrahippocampal infusion of the NMDA-antagonist D-AP5
Hippocampal neurons encode information about different types of memory episodes occurring in the same location
Acquisition of knowledge about spatial location: assessing the generality of the mechanism of learning
Absence of overshadowing and blocking between landmarks and the geometric cues provided by the shape of a test arena
The role of associative history in models of associative learning: a selective review and a hybrid model
Spatial learning based on the shape of the environment is influenced by properties of the objects forming the shape
Use of a resin-bonded fixed partial denture with a removable pontic during the osseointegration period of a single implant treatment: a clinical report
Dominance of the proximal coordinate frame in determining the locations of hippocampal place cell activity during navigation.
Unmasking the CA1 ensemble place code by exposures to small and large environments: more place cells and multiple, irregularly arranged, and expanded place fields in the larger space
How heterogeneous place cell responding arises from homogeneous grids--a contextual gating hypothesis
25 years of research on the use of geometry in spatial reorientation: a current theoretical perspective
Transfer of spatial search between environments in human adults and young children (Homo sapiens): implications for representation of local geometry by spatial systems
A reinforcement learning approach to model interactions between landmarks and geometric cues during spatial learning
Learned predictiveness training modulates biases towards using boundary or landmark cues during navigation
Failure to demonstrate short-cutting in a replication and extension of Tolman et al.'s spatial learning experiment with humans
The effects of cue placement on the relative dominance of boundaries and landmark arrays in goal localization
Are Distal and Proximal Visual Cues Equally Important during Spatial Learning in Mice? A Pilot Study of Overshadowing in the Spatial Domain
The effects of spatial stability and cue type on spatial learning: Implications for theories of parallel memory systems.
Basal Ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei in the brain associated with control of voluntary motor movements, procedural and habit learning, emotion, and cognition. Here is the latest research.