Third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerve palsies following closed head injury

Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology : the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Avninder DhaliwalDavid C Musch


The relationship between the circumstances and severity of closed head injury (CHI) and the clinical and imaging features of cranial nerve 3, 4, and 6 palsies has not been rigorously addressed in a large study. Retrospective chart review of 210 consecutive patients with CHI examined at a single tertiary care center from 1987 to 2002. Patients were located by searching the ophthalmology inpatient consultation and neuro-ophthalmology outpatient databases and hospital emergency room billing codes for a diagnosis of traumatic 3, 4, or 6 cranial nerve palsy (Cranial Nerve Injury Group) and a diagnosis of CHI without traumatic 3, 4, or 6 nerve palsy (Control Group). The Cranial Nerve Injury Group was then subdivided into two groups: those with injuries to an individual cranial nerve and those with multiple (including bilateral) cranial nerve injuries. Comparisons between groups were based on age, gender, type of accident, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), documented loss of consciousness (LOC), type of ocular injury, presence of systemic injury, need for rehabilitation, physical therapy and cognitive scores, and imaging features. The Cranial Nerve Injury Group had a significantly higher severity of head injury, more CT abnormalities, and wor...Continue Reading


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