The three-dimensional structure of erabutoxin b, a neurotoxin in the venom of the sea snake Laticauda semifasciata, has been determined from a 2.75 A resolution electron density map. Erabutoxin b is one of a family of snake venom neurotoxins, all low-molecular-weight proteins, which block neuromuscular transmission at the postsynaptic membrane. They specifically inhibit the acetylcholine receptor. The molecular shape is that of a shallow elongated saucer with a footed stand formed by the six-membered ring at the COOH-terminal end. The central core of the molecule is an assembly of four disulfide bridges. Three long chain loops emerge as broad fronds from the core region. Approximately 40% of the main chain is organized into a twisted antiparallel beta-pleated sheet of five short strands. In 28 snake venom neurotoxins of established sequence which inhibit the acetylcholine receptor, the four disulfide bridges and seven other residues remain invariant. Three substitution positions conserve residue type. In one wing of the molecule, there is a broad shallow depression which may characterize the reactive site. It is populated by the sevent invariant residues and two of the three type conserved residues. This region is "anchored" on...Continue Reading
Demonstration of a specific -bungarotoxin binding component in electrophorus electricus electroplax membranes
Conformational parameters for amino acids in helical, beta-sheet, and random coil regions calculated from proteins
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Immunological studies on erabutoxin b, a sea snake toxin. Attempts to locate the amino acid residues determining antigenicity
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Proton-nuclear-magnetic-resonance study on molecular conformations of long neurotoxins. alpha-Bungarotoxin from Bungarus multicinctus and Toxin B from Naja naja
A proton-magnetic-resonance study on the molecular conformation and structure-function relationship of a long neurotoxin, laticauda semifasciata III from Laticauda semifasciata
1H nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies of the conformation of cardiotoxin VII2 from Naja mossambica mossambica
The interaction of neurotoxin derivatives with either acetylcholine receptor or a monoclonal antibody. An electron-spin-resonance study
Erabutoxin b. Structure/function relationships following initial protein refinement at 0.140-nm resolution
Sequence-specific 1H-NMR assignments and determination of the secondary structure in aqueous solution of the cardiotoxins CTXIIa and CTXIIb from Naja mossambica mossambica
1H nuclear-magnetic-resonance studies of the three-dimensional structure of the cardiotoxin CTXIIb from Naja mossambica mossambica in aqueous solution and comparison with the crystal structures of homologous toxins
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Step-wise thermal denaturation of cobrotoxin, a snake venom neurotoxin from Naja naja atra: a proton nuclear magnetic resonance study
State of functionally essential Trp-29 in snake venom neurotoxins: a proton nuclear magnetic resonance study
Chemical modification of tryptophan residues in alpha-neurotoxins from Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra) venom
Assessment of secondary-structure prediction of proteins. Comparison of computerized Chou-Fasman method with others
Common structural traits for cystine knot domain of the TGFβ superfamily of proteins and three-fingered ectodomain of their cellular receptors
A possible orientation change of cardiotoxin molecule during its interaction with phospholipid monolayer
Interaction of modified neurotoxins from Naja nigricollis with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo marmorata. A Raman spectroscopy study
Preliminary x-ray diffraction studies on a scorpion neurotoxin: toxin II of Androctonus australis Hector
Logical analysis of the mechanism of protein folding. V. Packing game simulation of alpha/beta proteins
Crystallization of kappa-bungarotoxin: preliminary X-ray data obtained from the venom-derived protein
1H n.m.r. studies of a neurotoxin and a cardiotoxin from Naja mossambica mossambica: amide proton resonances
On the conformation of proteins: towards the prediction of strand arrangements in beta-pleated sheets
Conformational analysis of a snake neurotoxin by prediction from sequence, circular dichroism, and raman spectroscopy
Structure of variant-3 scorpion neurotoxin from Centruroides sculpturatus Ewing, refined at 1.8 A resolution
A general model of the P2 protein of peripheral nervous system myelin based on secondary structure predictions, tertiary folding principles, and experimental observations
Hydrogen exchange kinetics and dynamic structure of erabutoxin B from 1H NMR and infrared spectrometry
Multidimensional Drift of Sequence Attributes and Functional Profiles in the Superfamily of the Three-Finger Proteins and Their Structural Homologues
Intermolecular cross-linking of a protein crystal--acid protease from Endothia parasitica--in 2.7 M ammonium sulfate solution
Identification and expression of a new Ly6 gene cluster in zebrafish Danio rerio, with implications of being involved in embryonic immunity
Three-finger snake neurotoxins and Ly6 proteins targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: pharmacological tools and endogenous modulators
Conformational prediction for snake venom toxins and laser Raman scattering of a cardiotoxin from Taiwan cobra (Naja naja atra) venom
Specific binding of a cardiotoxin from Naja mossambica mossambica to charged phospholipids detected by intrinsic fluorescence
Electronic spectroscopy and deuteration kinetics of tyrosine and tryptophan residues: an application to the study of erabutoxin b
Role of tyrosine and tryptophan residues in the structure-activity relationships of a cardiotoxin from Naja nigricollis venom
Solution conformation of conotoxin GI determined by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and distance geometry calculations
Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies on the variant-3 neurotoxin from Centruroides sculpturatus Ewing: sequential assignment of resonances
Structure and chemical modifications of neurotoxin from Naja nigricollis studied by Raman spectroscopy
Synthesis and characterization of a heterobifunctional mercurial cross-linking agent: incorporation into cobratoxin and interaction with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor
Solution structure of neuronal bungarotoxin determined by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy: sequence-specific assignments, secondary structure, and dimer formation
Three-dimensional solution structure of a curaremimetic toxin from Naja nigricollis venom: a proton NMR and molecular modeling study
External release of entropy by synchronized movements of local secondary structures drives folding of a small, disulfide-bonded protein
A possible structural basis for the different modes of action of neurotoxins and cardiotoxins from snake venoms
EPR and fluorescence study of interaction of Naja naja oxiana neurotoxin II and its derivatives with acetylcholine receptor protein from Torpedo marmorata
Analysis of folding intermediates from the main toxin of Naja naja samarensis containing two blocked cysteines
Snake venom toxins. The amino-acid sequence of a short-neurotoxin homologue from Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis (black mamba) venom
Sequential individual resonance assignments in the 1H nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectrum of cardiotoxin VII2 from Naja mossambica mossambica
Conformational studies of neurotoxin II from Naja naja oxiana. Selective N-acylation, circular dichroism and nuclear-magnetic-resonance study of acylation products
The 1H nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectra of Neurotoxin I and cardiotoxin Vii4 from Naja mossambica mossambica
Conformation of erabutoxins a and b in aqueous solution as studied by nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism
Crystal structure of the human urokinase plasminogen activator receptor bound to an antagonist peptide
Characterization of the functional epitope on the urokinase receptor. Complete alanine scanning mutagenesis supplemented by chemical cross-linking
Identification of pairwise interactions in the alpha-neurotoxin-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor complex through double mutant cycles.
Genetic engineering of snake toxins. The functional site of Erabutoxin a, as delineated by site-directed mutagenesis, includes variant residues.
Preliminary two-dimensional [1H]NMR characterization of the complex formed between an 18-amino acid peptide fragment of the alpha-subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and alpha-bungarotoxin
A monoclonal antibody which recognized the functional site of snake neurotoxins and which neutralizes all short-chain variants
Role of amino and carboxyl groups of cobrotoxin in the conformational stability and the interaction with acetylcholine receptor
Mimicry between receptors and antibodies. Identification of snake toxin determinants recognized by the acetylcholine receptor and an acetylcholine receptor-mimicking monoclonal antibody.
The atomic resolution crystal structure of atratoxin determined by single wavelength anomalous diffraction phasing.
Snake three-finger α-neurotoxins and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: molecules, mechanisms and medicine
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