PMID: 5917768Sep 16, 1966

Time-dependent processes in memory storage

J L McGaugh


These observations indicate that the long-lasting trace of an experience is not completely fixed, consolidated, or coded at the time of the experience. Consolidation requires time, and under at least some circumstances the processes of consolidation appear to be susceptible to a variety of influences- both facilitating and impairing- several hours after the experience. There must be, it seems, more than one kind of memory trace process (31). If permanent memory traces consolidate slowly over time, then other processes must provide a temporary basis for memory while consolidation is occurring. The evidence clearly indicates that trial-to-trial improvement, or learning, in animals cannot be based completely on permanent memory storage. Amnesia can be produced by electroshock and drugs even if the animals are given the treatment long after they have demonstrated "learning" of the task. Of particular interest is the finding that retention of the inhibitory avoidance response increases with time. In a sense this should be expected, for it has long been known (and ignored) that, within limits, learning is facilitated by increasing the interval between repeated trials (7, 30). Our result may be the simplest case of such an effect. Sin...Continue Reading


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