Tissue transglutaminase-catalysed cross-linking induces Apolipoprotein E multimers inhibiting Apolipoprotein E's protective effects towards amyloid-beta-induced toxicity

Journal of Neurochemistry
Mieke de JagerMicha M M Wilhelmus

Abstract

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and characterized by deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein and smooth muscle cell (SMC) death in cerebral vessel walls. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is of importance in both Aβ accumulation and Aβ-mediated toxicity towards SMCs in the cerebral vessel wall, although its exact role in CAA pathogenesis remains unclear. Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is an enzyme capable of inducing both protein complexes and altered protein bioactivity via post-translational cross-linking. In CAA, tTG and its catalytic activity are associated with deposited Aβ. Furthermore, several apolipoproteins are known substrates of tTG. We therefore investigated whether ApoE is a substrate for tTG and if this affects ApoE's bioactivity. We found strong binding of different ApoE isoforms with tTG and demonstrated tTG-catalysed ApoE multimers. In post-mortem human AD cases, ApoE colocalized with in situ active tTG in CAA. Moreover, human brain SMCs treated with Aβ demonstrated enhanced secretion of both ApoE and tTG, and of TG cross-links in the extracellular matrix. Interestingly, tTG-catalysed cross-linked ApoE failed to protect SMCs against Aβ-mediated cytotoxicity. Together, ...Continue Reading

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Related Concepts

Alzheimer's Disease
Amyloid
Apolipoproteins
Apolipoprotein E
Blood Vessel
Brain
Cessation of Life
Extracellular Matrix
Hyperlipoproteinemia Type III
Transglutaminases

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