Mar 1, 1976

Tongue evolution in the lungless salamanders, family plethodontidae. I. Introduction, theory and a general model of dynamics

Journal of Morphology
R E Lombard, David B Wake

Abstract

Plethodontid salamanders capture prey by projecting the tongue from the mouth. An analysis of theoretical mechanics of the hyobranchial skeleton is used to formulate a working hypothesis of tongue movements. Predictions that the skeletal elements of the tongue are included in the projectile and that the hyobranchial skeleton is folded during projection are central to the analysis. When decapitated in a particular way, salamanders project the tongue, and it is not retracted. When these heads are fixed and sectioned, examination confirms the predications. In turn, these observations are used to refine the working hypothesis and to generate a general model of tongue dynamics for plethodontids. Muscles performing the major roles of projection (subarcualis rectus I) and retraction (rectus cervicis profundus) are identified. The skeleton is folded passively along a morphological track having the form of a tractrix. Predictions concerning the shape of the track and the exact configuration of the folded skeleton are confirmed by study of sectioned material. The skeleton unfolds along the track during retraction and is spread into the resting state. The model developed herein will be used as a basis for predictions concerning selection ...Continue Reading

  • References3
  • Citations30

References

Mentioned in this Paper

Skeletal System
Benign Neoplasm of Tongue
Skeleton
Interphase Cell
Entire Skeleton
Tongue
PYURF gene
Entire Tongue
Salamanders
Biological Evolution

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Synthetic Genetic Array Analysis

Synthetic genetic arrays allow the systematic examination of genetic interactions. Here is the latest research focusing on synthetic genetic arrays and their analyses.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinomas account for >90% of all tumors in the head and neck region. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma incidence has increased dramatically recently with little improvement in patient outcomes. Here is the latest research on this aggressive malignancy.

Signaling in Adult Neurogenesis

Neural stem cells play a critical role in the production of neuronal cells in neurogenesis is of great importance. Of interest is the role signalling mechanisms in adult neurogenesis. Discover the latest research on signalling in adult neurogenesis.

Psychiatric Chronotherapy

Psychiatric Chronotherapy considers the circadian rhythm as a major factor for optimizing therapeutic efficacy of psychiatric interventions. Discover the latest research on Psychiatric Chronotherapy here.

Epigenetic Memory

Epigenetic memory refers to the heritable genetic changes that are not explained by the DNA sequence. Find the latest research on epigenetic memory here.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.