Toward practical smile detection

IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Jacob WhitehillJavier Movellan

Abstract

Machine learning approaches have produced some of the highest reported performances for facial expression recognition. However, to date, nearly all automatic facial expression recognition research has focused on optimizing performance on a few databases that were collected under controlled lighting conditions on a relatively small number of subjects. This paper explores whether current machine learning methods can be used to develop an expression recognition system that operates reliably in more realistic conditions. We explore the necessary characteristics of the training data set, image registration, feature representation, and machine learning algorithms. A new database, GENKI, is presented which contains pictures, photographed by the subjects themselves, from thousands of different people in many different real-world imaging conditions. Results suggest that human-level expression recognition accuracy in real-life illumination conditions is achievable with machine learning technology. However, the data sets currently used in the automatic expression recognition literature to evaluate progress may be overly constrained and could potentially lead research into locally optimal algorithmic solutions.

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Citations

Oct 13, 2011·Cognitive Processing·Laurens van der Maaten, Emile Hendriks
Mar 29, 2014·PloS One·Magdalena RychlowskaPaula M Niedenthal
Dec 9, 2010·Behavior Research Methods·Jeffrey F Cohn, Michael A Sayette
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Jun 1, 2014·IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence· Weihong Deng Jun Guo
Nov 26, 2010·IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics. Part B, Cybernetics : a Publication of the IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society·Patrick LuceyKenneth M Prkachin
Jul 20, 2011·IEEE Transactions on Image Processing : a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society·Caifeng Shan
May 15, 2012·IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics. Part B, Cybernetics : a Publication of the IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society·S W ChewS Sridharan
May 17, 2012·IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics. Part B, Cybernetics : a Publication of the IEEE Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Society· Tingfan WuJ R Movellan
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Sep 12, 2020·Psychophysiology·Ursula Hess
Dec 19, 2017·Personal Relationships·Saeideh HeshmatiAshley E Mason

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