Toxin-mediated streptococcal and staphylococcal disease
After several decades of seemingly decreasing virulence, streptococcal and staphylococcal infections have reemerged as a major source of morbidity and mortality. Within the past 2 decades, not only have well-established diseases such as rheumatic fever begun to reappear. but also many new entities, such as toxic shock syndrome, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, recurrent toxin-mediated perineal erythema, and recalcitrant erythematous desquamating disorder have been described. Central to the renewed importance of these bacteria has been the production of circulating toxins, which often function as superantigens in causing the clinical manifestations, morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases.
Apparent increase in the incidence of invasive group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal disease in children
The V beta-specific superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin B: stimulation of mature T cells and clonal deletion in neonatal mice
Severe group A streptococcal infections associated with a toxic shock-like syndrome and scarlet fever toxin A
Nucleotide sequence of the staphylococcal enterotoxin C1 gene and relatedness to other pyrogenic toxins
Induction by toxic-shock-syndrome toxin-1 of a circulating tumor necrosis factor-like substance in rabbits and of immunoreactive tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 from human mononuclear cells
The Eagle effect revisited: efficacy of clindamycin, erythromycin, and penicillin in the treatment of streptococcal myositis
Streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin type A (scarlet fever toxin) is related to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B
Identification and characterization of an exotoxin from Staphylococcus aureus associated with toxic-shock syndrome
Differential expression of lymphocyte homing receptors by human memory/effector T cells in pulmonary versus cutaneous immune effector sites
Presence of IgE antibodies to staphylococcal exotoxins on the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis. Evidence for a new group of allergens
CD8+ T cells in psoriatic lesions preferentially use T-cell receptor V beta 3 and/or V beta 13.1 genes
A novel superantigen isolated from pathogenic strains of Streptococcus pyogenes with aminoterminal homology to staphylococcal enterotoxins B and C
Invasive group A streptococcal infections in Ontario, Canada. Ontario Group A Streptococcal Study Group
Acute group G streptococcal myositis associated with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome: case report and review
Diffuse acute pustular eruption after streptococcal infection--a new instance of pustulosis acuta generalisata
Establishment of a superficial skin infection model in mice by using Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes
Three distinct two-component systems are involved in resistance to the class I bacteriocins, Nukacin ISK-1 and nisin A, in Staphylococcus aureus
Response to Malassezia pachydermatis by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from clinically normal and atopic dogs
Transient and relapsing reticulated erythema associated with probable focal infection on implantable catheter site: a toxin-induced reaction?
C55 bacteriocin produced by ETB-plasmid positive Staphylococcus aureus strains is a key factor for competition with S. aureus strains
Human leukocyte antigen class II transgenic mouse model unmasks the significant extrahepatic pathology in toxic shock syndrome
The Antistaphylococcal Activity of Citropin 1.1 and Temporin A against Planktonic Cells and Biofilms Formed by Isolates from Patients with Atopic Dermatitis: An Assessment of Their Potential to Induce Microbial Resistance Compared to Conventional Antimicrobials
Fatal group A streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome in a patient with psoriasis and chronic renal impairment
Axillary cellulitis caused by toxic shock syndrome toxin 1-secreting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus meeting criteria for Kawasaki disease
Dramatic Changes in Oligomerization Property Caused by Single Residue Deletion in Staphylococcus aureus Enolase.
Expression of virulence factors under different environmental conditions in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.
CRISPR & Staphylococcus
CRISPR-Cas system enables the editing of genes to create or correct mutations. Staphylococci are associated with life-threatening infections in hospitals, as well as the community. Here is the latest research on how CRISPR-Cas system can be used for treatment of Staphylococcal infections.