Tracking distinct microglia subpopulations with photoconvertible Dendra2 in vivo.

Journal of Neuroinflammation
Eric B MillerMarie E Burns


The ability to track individual immune cells within the central nervous system has revolutionized our understanding of the roles that microglia and monocytes play in synaptic maintenance, plasticity, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, distinguishing between similar subpopulations of mobile immune cells over time during episodes of neuronal death and tissue remodeling has proven to be challenging. We recombineered a photoconvertible fluorescent protein (Dendra2; D2) downstream of the Cx3cr1 promoter commonly used to drive expression of fluorescent markers in microglia and monocytes. Like the popular Cx3cr1-GFP line (Cx3cr1+/GFP), naïve microglia in Cx3cr1-Dendra2 mice (Cx3cr1+/D2) fluoresce green and can be noninvasively imaged in vivo throughout the CNS. In addition, individual D2-expressing cells can be photoconverted, resulting in red fluorescence, and tracked unambiguously within a field of green non-photoconverted cells for several days in vivo. Dendra2-expressing retinal microglia were noninvasively photoconverted in both ex vivo and in vivo conditions. Local in vivo D2 photoconversion was sufficiently robust to quantify cell subpopulations by flow cytometry, and the protein was stable enough to survive tissue proces...Continue Reading


Jun 19, 1998·Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research·D ItoS Kohsaka
Apr 4, 2002·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Y A LabasM V Matz
Sep 10, 2002·Nature Genetics·Wenshan HaoJanis Lem
Mar 22, 2006·Nature Biotechnology·Nadya G GurskayaKonstantin A Lukyanov
May 23, 2007·BioTechniques·Dmitriy M ChudakovKonstantin A Lukyanov
Aug 19, 2007·Nature Protocols·Dmitriy M ChudakovKonstantin A Lukyanov
Nov 21, 2009·Experimental Eye Research·Johanna Tukler HenrikssonJames E Walsh
Jan 21, 2011·Journal of Leukocyte Biology·Sa Kan Yoo, Anna Huttenlocher
Aug 30, 2012·Nature Methods·Caroline A SchneiderKevin W Eliceiri
Mar 20, 2013·Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience·Yochai WolfSteffen Jung
May 27, 2014·Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience·Rosa Chiara PaolicelliMarie-Ève Tremblay
Aug 6, 2014·Vision Research·Emily S LevineMarie E Burns
Sep 4, 2014·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Tian Wang, Jeannie Chen
Feb 18, 2016·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Mariko L BennettBen A Barres
Oct 21, 2016·Journal of Molecular Medicine : Official Organ of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher Und Ärzte·Eleni BeliMaria B Grant
Dec 14, 2016·Annual Review of Physiology·Susanne A WolfHelmut Kettenmann
May 5, 2017·Nature Protocols·Anika LückoffThomas Langmann
Oct 8, 2017·Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications·Alexey A PakhomovIgor E Deyev
Jun 1, 2018·Annual Review of Vision Science·Sean M Silverman, Wai T Wong
Jul 28, 2019·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Eric B MillerMarie E Burns
Sep 5, 2019·Frontiers in Immunology·Khalid RashidThomas Langmann
Feb 6, 2020·Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics : the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)·Erica L Fletcher
Apr 25, 2020·American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology·Ibolya RutkaiDavid W Busija
May 28, 2020·Trends in Neurosciences·Chen YuDaniel R Saban
Jun 6, 2020·Molecular Systems Biology·Nicholas HasleDouglas M Fowler
Jun 24, 2020·ELife·Gabriel L McKinseyThomas D Arnold
Jul 1, 2020·Journal of Visualized Experiments : JoVE·Maria Lucia Pigazzini, Janine Kirstein
Sep 17, 2020·Annual Review of Vision Science·Sarah J KarlenMarie E Burns
Oct 30, 2020·Frontiers in Immunology·Elisa Eme-Scolan, Samantha J Dando

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.


Blastomycosis fungal infections spread through inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis spores. Discover the latest research on blastomycosis fungal infections here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.


Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.

Related Papers

Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Alexey A PakhomovIgor E Deyev
Journal of Biological Methods
Zhihui ZhangChristopher I Richards
Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
Richard M Ransohoff, Joseph El Khoury
© 2021 Meta ULC. All rights reserved