This paper reviews the current role of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in epilepsy research. After a brief introduction to the technical principles, the physiology and the safety aspects of TMS, emphasis is put on how human cortex excitability can be assessed by TMS and how this may improve our understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms in epilepsy and the mode of action of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Also, potential therapeutical applications of TMS are reviewed. For all aspects of this paper, a clear distinction was made between single-/paired-pulse TMS and repetitive TMS, since these two techniques have fundamentally different scopes and applications.
Increased cortical excitability in generalised epilepsy demonstrated with transcranial magnetic stimulation
Topographic mapping of the human motor cortex with magnetic stimulation: factors affecting accuracy and reproducibility
Electric field induced in a spherical volume conductor from arbitrary coils: application to magnetic stimulation and MEG
Intra-operative recording of motor tract potentials at the cervico-medullary junction following scalp electrical and magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex
Non-invasive evaluation of central motor tract excitability changes following peripheral nerve stimulation in healthy humans
Magnetic brain stimulation: a tool to explore the action of the motor cortex on single human spinal motoneurones
Magnetic motor-evoked potentials in epilepsy: effects of the disease and of anticonvulsant medication
Safety aspects of transcranial brain stimulation in man tested by single photon emission-computed tomography
Effects of the tetronic acid derivatives AO33 (losigamone) and AO78 on epileptiform activity and on stimulus-induced calcium concentration changes in rat hippocampal slices
Focal stimulation of human cerebral cortex with the magnetic coil: a comparison with electrical stimulation
Electric and magnetic stimulation of human motor cortex: surface EMG and single motor unit responses
Task-dependent changes in the size of response to magnetic brain stimulation in human first dorsal interosseous muscle
Magnetic stimulation of the human brain: facilitation of motor responses by voluntary contraction of ipsilateral and contralateral muscles with additional observations on an amputee
Magnetic stimulation of peripheral nerves. Comparison of magnetic stimulation with electrical stimulation
Cerebro-cerebellar interactions in man: neurophysiological studies in patients with focal cerebellar lesions
Non-invasive differentiation of motor cortical representation of hand muscles by mapping of optimal current directions
Electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of neuropsychiatric conditions and transcranial magnetic stimulation as a pathophysiological probe in neuropsychiatry
Interleaved transcranial magnetic stimulation and fMRI suggests that lamotrigine and valproic acid have different effects on corticolimbic activity.
Extensive training of elementary finger tapping movements changes the pattern of motor cortex excitability.
Relationship between lamotrigine oral dose, serum level and its inhibitory effect on CNS: insights from transcranial magnetic stimulation
Intracranial measurement of current densities induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation in the human brain
Motor thresholds in humans: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study comparing different pulse waveforms, current directions and stimulator types
Inter- and intra-individual variability of paired-pulse curves with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)
Cortical silent period in two patients with meningioma and preoperative seizures: a pre- and postsurgical follow-up study
Suprathreshold 0.3 Hz repetitive TMS prolongs the cortical silent period: potential implications for therapeutic trials in epilepsy
Comparison of the inhibitory and excitatory effects of ADHD medications methylphenidate and atomoxetine on motor cortex
No correlation between moving phosphene and motor thresholds: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study
Cortical excitability in cryptogenic localization-related epilepsy: interictal transcranial magnetic stimulation studies
Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of refractory partial epilepsy: a controlled clinical study
Reduced excitability of the motor cortex in untreated patients with de novo idiopathic "grand mal" seizures
Contribution of transcranial magnetic stimulation to the understanding of functional recovery mechanisms after stroke.
Cortical excitability of psychiatric disorders: reduced post-exercise facilitation in depression compared to schizophrenia and controls
Formation of locomotor patterns in decerebrate cats in conditions of epidural stimulation of the spinal cord
Novel mechanisms underlying inhibitory and facilitatory transcranial magnetic stimulation abnormalities in Parkinson's disease
WITHDRAWN: Mechanisms Underlying Inhibitory and Facilitatory Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Abnormalities in a Large Sample of Patients with Parkinson's Disease
Resting motor threshold in idiopathic generalized epilepsies: a systematic review with meta-analysis
Using interleaved transcranial magnetic stimulation/functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and dynamic causal modeling to understand the discrete circuit specific changes of medications: lamotrigine and valproic acid changes in motor or prefrontal effective connectivity
Functional connectivity of the temporo-parietal region in schizophrenia: effects of rTMS treatment of auditory hallucinations
Neural response to transcranial magnetic stimulation in adult hypothyroidism and effect of replacement treatment
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