Transferrins and heme-compounds as iron sources for pathogenic bacteria

Critical Reviews in Microbiology
B R OttoD M MacLaren


The low concentration of free iron in body fluids creates bacteriostatic conditions for many microorganisms and is therefore an important defense factor of the body against invading bacteria. Pathogenic bacteria have developed several mechanisms for acquiring iron from the host. Siderophore-mediated iron uptake involves the synthesis of low molecular weight iron chelators called siderophores which compete with the host iron-binding glycoproteins lactoferrin (LF) and transferrin (TF) for iron. Other ways to induce iron uptake, without the mediation of siderophores, are the possession of outer membrane protein receptors that actually recognize the complex of TF or LF with iron, resulting in the internalization of this metal, and the use of heme-compounds released into the circulation after lysis of erythrocytes. In this review, the nonsiderophore-mediated iron-uptake systems used by certain pathogenic bacteria are emphasized. The possible contribution of these iron-uptake systems to the virulence of pathogens is also discussed.


Mar 1, 1979·Journal of Bacteriology·R D Perry, R R Brubaker
Apr 15, 1975·Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences·W T Morgan
Jan 4, 1979·The New England Journal of Medicine·P A BlakeP C Heublein
Feb 1, 1975·British Journal of Haematology·C Hershko
Jan 15, 1991·FEMS Microbiology Letters·K Redhead, T Hill
Jan 1, 1990·Drug Metabolism Reviews·E D Weinberg
Aug 1, 1990·Infection and Immunity·T J AdamsR E Cowart
May 1, 1990·FEMS Microbiology Letters·Dlawer A A Ala'AldeenS P Borriello
Jan 1, 1990·FEMS Microbiology Letters·A R GorringeA Robinson
May 1, 1990·Journal of General Microbiology·D J Morton, P Williams
Dec 1, 1990·Infection and Immunity·B R OttoD M MacLaren
Feb 14, 1990·Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications·T E Bramanti, S C Holt
Mar 1, 1989·Canadian Journal of Microbiology·A B Schryvers, B C Lee
Sep 1, 1989·Molecular Microbiology·S M Payne
Jan 1, 1989·Annual Review of Genetics·V J DiRita, J J Mekalanos
Dec 1, 1987·Microbial Pathogenesis·V V Tryon, J B Baseman
Apr 1, 1987·Journal of General Microbiology·K RedheadH Chart
Mar 1, 1986·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·B H BaigG K Morris
Dec 1, 1986·Journal of Bacteriology·S L EvansH Aranha
Apr 1, 1988·Infection and Immunity·K A PidcockT L Stull
Oct 1, 1988·European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases : Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology·V de Lorenzo, J L Martinez
Jan 1, 1987·Infection and Immunity·T L Stull
May 4, 1987·European Journal of Biochemistry·R R Crichton, M Charloteaux-Wauters
Sep 1, 1988·Infection and Immunity·S P Tai, R K Holmes
Apr 1, 1988·Infection and Immunity·W R McKennaD W Dyer
Mar 1, 1988·Molecular Microbiology·A B Schryvers, L J Morris
Oct 1, 1987·Journal of Bacteriology·S B Calderwood, J J Mekalanos
Jan 1, 1988·Infection and Immunity·Z Zakaria-MeehanJ D Oliver
Apr 1, 1987·The Journal of Experimental Medicine·T A MietznerS A Morse
Apr 1, 1985·Infection and Immunity·D A Herrington, P F Sparling
Jan 1, 1986·Infection and Immunity·T A MietznerS A Morse
Jun 1, 1985·European Journal of Clinical Microbiology·E BouzaF Baquero
Aug 1, 1984·Journal of Medical Microbiology·D C Turk
Dec 1, 1981·The Annals of Thoracic Surgery·J R BenfieldR L Teplitz
Jan 1, 1982·Annual Review of Microbiology·J B Neilands
Oct 1, 1983·Infection and Immunity·C WaalwijkJ de Graaff
Sep 1, 1983·Reviews of Infectious Diseases·R A FinkelsteinM A McIntosh
May 1, 1981·Infection and Immunity·R J Yancey, R A Finkelstein
Jan 1, 1981·Annual Review of Biochemistry·J B Neilands
Aug 1, 1984·Infection and Immunity·S D HelmsJ C Travis
Aug 1, 1984·Journal of Medical Microbiology·J CarlssonG K Sundqvist
Feb 5, 1982·Science·J W EatonJ T Lee
Nov 1, 1981·Reviews of Infectious Diseases·J J Bullen
Nov 1, 1981·Infection and Immunity·A C WrightJ D Oliver


Feb 19, 2013·Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry : JBIC : a Publication of the Society of Biological Inorganic Chemistry·Carolyn DehnerJennifer L Dubois
Oct 14, 2010·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Jin-Long GaoNeil Hunter
Oct 30, 2010·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Yonglin HuDa Cheng Wang
Sep 22, 1998·The Journal of Experimental Medicine·B R OttoB Oudega
Apr 4, 2009·Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications·Fan JiangDa Cheng Wang
Nov 22, 2011·Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology and Crystallization Communications·Rui ZhangQuanming Zou
Nov 5, 2005·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·Ruben Avendaño-HerreraBeatriz Magariños
Sep 19, 2000·Infection and Immunity·Oyebode OlakanmiLarry S Schlesinger
May 19, 2000·Infection and Immunity·G P Jarosik, C B Land
May 16, 2002·Infection and Immunity·V I HaraszthyJ J Zambon
Oct 24, 2003·Infection and Immunity·D Scott MerrellStanley Falkow
Jul 26, 2005·Infection and Immunity·Mengyao Liu, Benfang Lei
Sep 25, 2012·Journal of Bacteriology·Marta ZapotocznaTimothy J Foster
Sep 6, 2008·Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews : MMBR·W LaJean Chaffin
Mar 12, 2013·Journal of Tropical Medicine·Jesús Serrano-LunaMireya de la Garza
Apr 24, 2008·BMC Microbiology·Odile B HarrisonBachra Rokbi
Apr 10, 2009·Biometals : an International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine·Marco A González-López, José J Olivares-Trejo
Jan 24, 2013·Metallomics : Integrated Biometal Science·Amanda G Oglesby-Sherrouse, Erin R Murphy
Mar 5, 1999·Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases·L H VorlandT J Gutteberg
Jul 16, 2008·FEBS Letters·Areli Cruz-Castañeda, José J Olivares-Trejo
May 2, 2002·Kidney International. Supplement·Allan J Collins
Feb 10, 2012·Veterinary Microbiology·Qinghai HuShengqing Yu
Jun 23, 2009·Infection, Genetics and Evolution : Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics in Infectious Diseases·Fernando López-SotoMireya de la Garza
Aug 15, 2008·IUBMB Life·Federica TiburziPaolo Visca
Jan 6, 2011·Microbiology and Immunology·Hideharu YukitakeKoji Nakayama
Feb 1, 2011·Molecular Microbiology·Clémence FournierPhilippe Delepelaire
Mar 15, 2006·Journal of Immunological Methods·Yasser PereraRolando Pajon
Mar 29, 2002·Clinics in Perinatology·Josef Neu, Hilton Bernstein
Mar 5, 2015·The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology·Gerardo Ramírez-RicoJesús Serrano-Luna
Jan 18, 2005·FEMS Microbiology Reviews·Teresa OlczakC A Genco
Sep 29, 2004·FEMS Microbiology Reviews·Paul A CullenBen Adler
Mar 21, 2015·Biometals : an International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine·Angela T Nguyen, Amanda G Oglesby-Sherrouse
Feb 25, 2014·Fish & Shellfish Immunology·Martha Reyes-BecerrilFelipe Ascencio-Valle
May 30, 2016·Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology·Angela T Nguyen, Amanda G Oglesby-Sherrouse
Jun 24, 2016·Bioconjugate Chemistry·Thora R MaltaisAlexander Wei
Dec 22, 1999·APMIS : Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, Et Immunologica Scandinavica·L H Vorland
Jan 1, 1996·Microbiology and Immunology·R KimizukaK Okuda
Mar 27, 2004·Microbial Pathogenesis·J F AldereteM W Lehker
Apr 22, 2011·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·John F FisherCheryl A Newman
Feb 1, 1995·Advances in Dental Research·C A Genco
Dec 17, 2016·Genes·Alexandria A Reinhart, Amanda G Oglesby-Sherrouse
May 10, 2017·Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry·Fariha Jasin MansurHiroyuki Azakami
Apr 21, 2017·Annual Review of Biochemistry·Weiliang Huang, Angela Wilks
Apr 21, 2001·Journal of Basic Microbiology·G P Jarosik, C B Land
Aug 1, 2017·Periodontology 2000·J L EbersoleOctavio A Gonzalez
Feb 6, 2013·Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology·Do Young YooJung Mogg Kim
Apr 29, 2015·Journal of Bacteriology·Angela T NguyenAmanda G Oglesby-Sherrouse
Dec 17, 2014·Infection and Immunity·Alexandria A ReinhartAmanda G Oglesby-Sherrouse
Apr 15, 2014·Journal of Bacteriology·Angela T NguyenAmanda G Oglesby-Sherrouse
May 4, 2016·Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy·Tsukasa Ito-HoriyamaKazuhiro Tateda
Sep 11, 2012·Journal of Bacteriology·Kendra H SteeleJason W Johnston
Oct 29, 2014·Intestinal research·Jung Mogg Kim
Jan 16, 1999·Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition·A BarabinoA De Alessandri
Jul 2, 1992·Nature·B R OttoD M MacLaren
Feb 1, 1994·Molecular Microbiology·C E Thomas, P F Sparling
Nov 9, 2007·Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry : JBIC : a Publication of the Society of Biological Inorganic Chemistry·Rebecca J Abergel, Kenneth N Raymond
Aug 15, 1994·FEMS Microbiology Letters·B FouzC Amaro
May 31, 2007·Natural Product Reports·Angela Wilks, Kimberly A Burkhard
Oct 16, 1999·Periodontology 2000·S C HoltC A Genco
Feb 8, 2011·European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases : Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology·M SchwaabA Minovi
Mar 6, 2012·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Colin Correnti, Roland K Strong
May 24, 2019·Protein Science : a Publication of the Protein Society·Ramsay MacdonaldRobert T Clubb
Dec 27, 2013·Nihon saikingaku zasshi. Japanese journal of bacteriology·Yutaka Kida
Jun 26, 2003·Oral Microbiology and Immunology·L KesavaluJ L Ebersole
Jul 7, 2015·Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications·Kaoru NishimuraJeremy R H Tame
Sep 1, 1993·FEMS Microbiology Letters·M PintorM T Criado
Mar 1, 1997·FEMS Microbiology Letters·S MiyoshiSumio Shinoda
Sep 19, 1998·FEMS Microbiology Letters·V BrochuD Mayrand
Mar 27, 2001·FEMS Microbiology Letters·S MatinahoJ Parkkinen
Apr 9, 2005·Microbiology·Kristin FuranoAnthony A Campagnari
Oct 19, 2017·Scientific Reports·Mei-Yan XuQing-Bin Lu
Apr 1, 1996·FEMS Microbiology Letters·S Khashe, J M Janda
Jan 15, 1996·FEMS Microbiology Letters·R Mazoy, M L Lemos
May 15, 2002·FEMS Microbiology Letters·K-P Leung, Shawn P Folk
Oct 29, 2004·Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, and Immobilization Biotechnology·H W KimA G Greenburg
Jul 18, 2018·Indian Journal of Microbiology·V KalidasanVasantha Kumari Neela
Mar 26, 2003·European Journal of Pediatrics·Maria KostakiThemistocles Karpathios
Jun 5, 2002·The Journal of Asthma : Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma·Yehudith Assoulin-DayaM Eric Gershwin
May 26, 2012·Chemical Communications : Chem Comm·Takeshi UchidaKoichiro Ishimori
Apr 6, 2002·FEMS Microbiology Letters·Shin-ichi MiyoshiShigeo Yamamoto
Dec 31, 1996·FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology·H R AminiT Wadström
Oct 31, 1998·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·M C BalebonaJ J Borrego
Mar 27, 1999·Journal of Bacteriology·A R Richardson, I Stojiljkovic
Nov 27, 2020·Metallomics : Integrated Biometal Science·Garrick CentolaAngela Wilks
Jan 23, 1999·Infection and Immunity·P DuchesneD Mayrand
Sep 24, 1998·Infection and Immunity·G P JarosikT Mercer

Related Concepts

Bacteroides fragilis
Haemophilus influenzae
Iron Chelating Agents
Transferrin C

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within the membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease in genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research on Alzheimer's disease and MS4A.

Pediculosis pubis

Pediculosis pubis is a disease caused by a parasitic insect known as Pthirus pubis, which infests human pubic hair, as well as other areas with hair including eye lashes. Here is the latest research.

Rh Isoimmunization

Rh isoimmunization is a potentially preventable condition that occasionally is associated with significant perinatal morbidity or mortality. Discover the latest research on Rh Isoimmunization here.

Genetic Screens in iPSC-derived Brain Cells

Genetic screening is a critical tool that can be employed to define and understand gene function and interaction. This feed focuses on genetic screens conducted using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived brain cells. It also follows CRISPR-Cas9 approaches to generating genetic mutants as a means of understanding the effect of genetics on phenotype.

Enzyme Evolution

This feed focuses on molecular models of enzyme evolution and new approaches (such as adaptive laboratory evolution) to metabolic engineering of microorganisms. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Pharmacology of Proteinopathies

This feed focuses on the pharmacology of proteinopathies - diseases in which proteins abnormally aggregate (i.e. Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, etc.). Discover the latest research in this field with this feed.

Alignment-free Sequence Analysis Tools

Alignment-free sequence analyses have been applied to problems ranging from whole-genome phylogeny to the classification of protein families, identification of horizontally transferred genes, and detection of recombined sequences. Here is the latest research.