May 11, 2012

Transforming growth factor-β activates c-Myc to promote palatal growth

Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Xiujuan ZhuAli Nawshad


During palatogenesis, the palatal mesenchyme undergoes increased cell proliferation resulting in palatal growth, elevation and fusion of the two palatal shelves. Interestingly, the palatal mesenchyme expresses all three transforming growth factor (TGF) β isoforms (1, 2, and 3) throughout these steps of palatogenesis. However, the role of TGFβ in promoting proliferation of palatal mesenchymal cells has never been explored. The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of TGFβ on human embryonic palatal mesenchymal (HEPM) cell proliferation. Our results showed that all isoforms of TGFβ, especially TGFβ3, increased HEPM cell proliferation by up-regulating the expression of cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases as well as c-Myc oncogene. TGFβ activated both Smad-dependent and Smad-independent pathways to induce c-Myc gene expression. Furthermore, TBE1 is the only functional Smad binding element (SBE) in the c-Myc promoter and Smad4, activated by TGFβ, binds to the TBE1 to induce c-Myc gene activity. We conclude that HEPM proliferation is manifested by the induction of c-Myc in response to TGFβ signaling, which is essential for complete palatal confluency. Our data highlights the potential role of TGFβ as a therapeutic molecul...Continue Reading

Mentioned in this Paper

Recombinant Transforming Growth Factor
Biochemical Pathway
MYC protein, human
Cyclin-Dependent Kinases
Structure of Papilla Incisiva of Mouth
Apoptosis, Intrinsic Pathway
Cell Cycle Proteins
Proteins, Recombinant DNA

Related Feeds

Birth Defects

Birth defects encompass structural and functional alterations that occur during embryonic or fetal development and are present since birth. The cause may be genetic, environmental or unknown and can result in physical and/or mental impairment. Here is the latest research on birth defects.

Cell Checkpoints & Regulators

Cell cycle checkpoints are a series of complex checkpoint mechanisms that detect DNA abnormalities and ensure that DNA replication and repair are complete before cell division. They are primarily regulated by cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases, and the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. Here is the latest research.

Cell Cycle Pathways

Cell cycle is a complex process regulated by several signal transduction pathways and enzymes. Here is the latest research on regulation of cell cycle and cell cycle pathways.