Transglutaminases: multifunctional cross-linking enzymes that stabilize tissues
Transglutaminases catalyze the posttranslational modification of proteins by transamidation of available glutamine residues. This action results primarily in the formation of epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)lysine cross-links but includes the incorporation of polyamines into suitable protein substrates as well. The covalent isopeptide crosslink is stable and resistant to proteolysis, thereby increasing the resistance of tissue to chemical, enzymatic, and mechanical disruption. The plasma transglutaminase, factor XIIIa, is formed at sites of blood coagulation and impedes blood loss by stabilizing the fibrin clot. The squamous epithelium constituting the protective callus layer of skin is formed by the action of keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGK) and epidermal transglutaminase (TGE). The tissue transglutaminase (TGC) is a cytoplasmic enzyme present in many cells including those in the blood vessel wall. TGC function is unknown, although it could function to stabilize intra- and extra-cellular molecules in a wide variety of physiologic or pathologic processes. The amino acid sequences of factor XIII, TGC, and TGK establish them as a homologous gene family and also reveal a striking homology to the erythrocyte membrane protein, band 4.2. ...Continue Reading
Location of the major epsilon-(gamma-glutamyl)lysyl cross-linking site in transglutaminase-modified human plasminogen.
Secondary structure prediction from multiple sequence data: blood clotting factor XIII and Yersinia protein-tyrosine phosphatase
Type-2 plasminogen-activator inhibitor is a substrate for trophoblast transglutaminase and factor XIIIa. Transglutaminase-catalyzed cross-linking to cellular and extracellular structures
Functional characterization of the catalytic site of the tetanus toxin light chain using permeabilized adrenal chromaffin cells
C-terminal deletion of human tissue transglutaminase enhances magnesium-dependent GTP/ATPase activity.
Cryptic origin of SPAI, a plasma protein with a transglutaminase substrate domain and the WAP motif, revealed by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry.
Differential growth of N- and S-type human neuroblastoma cells xenografted into scid mice. correlation with apoptosis
Changes in transcranial Doppler flow velocity waveform following inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis. Experimental study in anaesthetised rabbits
Identification of cytoplasmic actin as an abundant glutaminyl substrate for tissue transglutaminase in HL-60 and U937 cells undergoing apoptosis.
Identification and sequence analysis of two new members of the SKALP/elafin and SPAI-2 gene family. Biochemical properties of the transglutaminase substrate motif and suggestions for a new nomenclature.
The Rho-deamidating cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 from Escherichia coli possesses transglutaminase activity. Cysteine 866 and histidine 881 are essential for enzyme activity.
Regulation of the transglutaminase I gene. Identification of DNA elements involved in its transcriptional control in tracheobronchial epithelial cells.
Cardiac specific overexpression of transglutaminase II (G(h)) results in a unique hypertrophy phenotype independent of phospholipase C activation.
A novel function for transglutaminase 1: attachment of long-chain omega-hydroxyceramides to involucrin by ester bond formation
'Tissue' transglutaminase release from apoptotic cells into extracellular matrix during human liver fibrogenesis
Distinct roles for amino- and carboxyl-terminal sequences of SPRR1 protein in the formation of cross-linked envelopes of conducting airway epithelial cells
Participation of transglutaminase in the activation of latent transforming growth factor beta1 in aging articular cartilage
Detection of autoantibodies against tissue transglutaminase in patients with celiac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis
The cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha ) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand differentially modulate proliferation and apoptotic pathways in human keratinocytes expressing the human papillomavirus-16 E7 oncoprotein
Transglutaminase activity, protein, and mRNA expression are increased in progressive supranuclear palsy
Trichohyalin mechanically strengthens the hair follicle: multiple cross-bridging roles in the inner root shealth
Intracellular localization and activity state of tissue transglutaminase differentially impacts cell death.
Mammalian transglutaminases. Identification of substrates as a key to physiological function and physiopathological relevance
Transglutaminase 3 expression in C57BL/6J mouse embryo epidermis and the correlation with its differentiation
Identification of two GTP-independent alternatively spliced forms of tissue transglutaminase in human leukocytes, vascular smooth muscle, and endothelial cells
Arterial vimentin is a transglutaminase substrate: a link between vasomotor activity and remodeling?
Antibodies to tissue transglutaminase: an immune link between the gut, the coronaries and the myocardium?
Fibrin formation by wounded bronchial epithelial cell layers in vitro is essential for normal epithelial repair and independent of plasma proteins
Identification of new amine acceptor protein substrate candidates of transglutaminase in rat liver extract: use of 5-(biotinamido) pentylamine as a probe
Transglutaminases and transglutaminase-catalyzed cross-links colocalize with the pathological lesions in Alzheimer's disease brain
CD1a and factor XIIIa immunohistochemistry in leprosy: a possible role of dendritic cells in the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium leprae infection
Involvement of tissue transglutaminase in endothelin 1-induced hypertrophy in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes
E-cadherin and transglutaminase-1 epithelial barrier restoration precedes type IV collagen basement membrane reconstruction following vocal fold mucosal injury
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-nuclear factor-kappa B-signaling enhances St2b2 expression during 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced epidermal hyperplasia
Genomic mechanisms of evolved physiological plasticity in killifish distributed along an environmental salinity gradient
Tissue transglutaminase activity protects from cutaneous melanoma metastatic dissemination: an in vivo study
Identification of interaction partners of β-thymosins: application of thymosin β4 labeled by transglutaminase
Histaminylation of fibrinogen by tissue transglutaminase-2 (TGM-2): potential role in modulating inflammation
Factor XIII-A transglutaminase acts as a switch between preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation.
Functional and Structural Characterization of the Antiphagocytic Properties of a Novel Transglutaminase from Streptococcus suis.
The relationship between circulating tissue transglutaminase, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, soluble endoglin and vascular endothelial growth factor in pre-eclampsia
Characterisation of a novel cold-adapted calcium-activated transglutaminase: implications for medicine and food processing
High-resolution structural studies of the factor XIIIa crosslinking site and the first type 1 module of fibronectin
Human-immunodeficiency-virus transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 is an amino acceptor and donor substrate for transglutaminase in vitro
Evidence that transglutaminase and synapsin I are involved in the neuroparalytic action of tetanus toxin
Post-translational modification of CD38 protein into a high molecular weight form alters its catalytic properties.
Two adjacent N-terminal glutamines of BM-40 (osteonectin, SPARC) act as amine acceptor sites in transglutaminaseC-catalyzed modification.
The transglutaminase 1 enzyme is variably acylated by myristate and palmitate during differentiation in epidermal keratinocytes.
Effect of nitric oxide blockade by NG-nitro-L-arginine on cerebral blood flow response to changes in carbon dioxide tension
Effect of suramin on squamous differentiation and apoptosis in three human non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines
Identification of the eukaryotic initiation factor 5A as a retinoic acid-stimulated cellular binding partner for tissue transglutaminase II.
A novel, specific pro-urokinase complex on monocyte-like cells, detected by transglutaminase-catalyzed cross-linking
Differential expression of multiple transglutaminases in human brain. Increased expression and cross-linking by transglutaminases 1 and 2 in Alzheimer's disease.
Cell surface localization of tissue transglutaminase is dependent on a fibronectin-binding site in its N-terminal beta-sandwich domain.
A simple assay and histochemical localization of transglutaminase activity using a derivative of green fluorescent protein as substrate
Antibody reactivity against human and guinea pig tissue transglutaminase in children with celiac disease
Identification of glutamine and lysine residues in Alzheimer amyloid beta A4 peptide responsible for transglutaminase-catalysed homopolymerization and cross-linking to alpha 2M receptor
The crayfish plasma clotting protein: a vitellogenin-related protein responsible for clot formation in crustacean blood
The amine-donor substrate specificity of tissue-type transglutaminase. Influence of amino acid residues flanking the amine-donor lysine residue
Sphingosylphosphocholine reduces the calcium ion requirement for activating tissue transglutaminase.
A very-high-density lipoprotein with clotting ability from hemolymph of sand crayfish, Ibacus ciliatus
Characterization of the regulatory domains of the human skn-1a/Epoc-1/Oct-11 POU transcription factor.
Cholesterol 3-sulfate interferes with cornified envelope assembly by diverting transglutaminase 1 activity from the formation of cross-links and esters to the hydrolysis of glutamine
Biochemical effects of retinoic acid on GTP-binding Protein/Transglutaminases in HeLa cells. Stimulation of GTP-binding and transglutaminase activity, membrane association, and phosphatidylinositol lipid turnover.
Suppression of DMBA-induced mouse skin tumor development by inositol hexaphosphate and its mode of action
Structural basis for the coordinated regulation of transglutaminase 3 by guanine nucleotides and calcium/magnesium.
Tissue transglutaminase-induced aggregation of alpha-synuclein: Implications for Lewy body formation in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies
Localization of tissue transglutaminase in human carotid and coronary artery atherosclerosis: implications for plaque stability and progression
Identification of mammalian-type transglutaminase in Physarum polycephalum. Evidence from the cDNA sequence and involvement of GTP in the regulation of transamidating activity
Molecular cloning and expression of keratinocyte proline-rich protein, a novel squamous epithelial marker isolated during skin development.
Decreased efficiency of trypsinization of cells following photodynamic therapy: evaluation of a role for tissue transglutaminase
A novel tumor suppressor protein promotes keratinocyte terminal differentiation via activation of type I transglutaminase.
Factor XIII A-subunit concentration predicts outcome in stroke subjects and vascular outcome in healthy, middle-aged men
Thrombin upregulates tissue transglutaminase in endothelial cells: a potential role for tissue transglutaminase in stability of atherosclerotic plaque
Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) acting as G protein protects hepatocytes against Fas-mediated cell death in mice
Stimulated platelets use serotonin to enhance their retention of procoagulant proteins on the cell surface
Injury-induced "switch" from GTP-regulated to novel GTP-independent isoform of tissue transglutaminase in the rat spinal cord
Development of an immunocapture method for measuring IgA antibodies to tissue transglutaminase in the sera of patients with coeliac disease
Crystal structure of transglutaminase 3 in complex with GMP: structural basis for nucleotide specificity
Effect of tissue transglutaminase on the solubility of proteins containing expanded polyglutamine repeats
Disruption of the suprabasal keratin network by mutation M150T in the helix initiation motif of keratin 10 does not affect cornified cell envelope formation in human epidermis
Tissue transglutaminase is not involved in the aggregate formation of stably expressed alpha-synuclein in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells
Tissue transglutaminase catalyzes the formation of alpha-synuclein crosslinks in Parkinson's disease
The transcriptional profile of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast cells is influenced by human plasma
Localization of matrix metalloproteinases, (MMPs) their tissue inhibitors, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in growth plates of children and adolescents indicates a role for MMPs in human postnatal growth and skeletal maturation
Model thrombi formed under flow reveal the role of factor XIII-mediated cross-linking in resistance to fibrinolysis
A unique role for heat shock protein 70 and its binding partner tissue transglutaminase in cancer cell migration.
Type I transglutaminase accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum may be an underlying cause of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis.
Genetic deletion of transglutaminase 2 does not rescue the phenotypic deficits observed in R6/2 and zQ175 mouse models of Huntington's disease
Physical, Chemical and Biochemical Modifications of Protein-Based Films and Coatings: An Extensive Review
Manipulation of in vitro collagen matrix architecture for scaffolds of improved physiological relevance
A highly conserved lysine residue on the head domain of type II keratins is essential for the attachment of keratin intermediate filaments to the cornified cell envelope through isopeptide crosslinking by transglutaminases
Expression of tissue-type transglutaminase correlates positively with metastatic properties of human melanoma cell lines
Transglutaminase catalyzes the formation of sodium dodecyl sulfate-insoluble, Alz-50-reactive polymers of tau
Transglutaminase type 1 and its cross-linking activity are concentrated at adherens junctions in simple epithelial cells.
Transglutaminase 1 mutations in lamellar ichthyosis. Loss of activity due to failure of activation by proteolytic processing.
Peptides containing glutamine repeats as substrates for transglutaminase-catalyzed cross-linking: relevance to diseases of the nervous system
Defective stratum corneum and early neonatal death in mice lacking the gene for transglutaminase 1 (keratinocyte transglutaminase)
The proteins elafin, filaggrin, keratin intermediate filaments, loricrin, and small proline-rich proteins 1 and 2 are isodipeptide cross-linked components of the human epidermal cornified cell envelope.
Tissue transglutaminase protects against apoptosis by modifying the tumor suppressor protein p110 Rb.
Tissue transglutaminase is expressed, active, and directly involved in rat dermal wound healing and angiogenesis
Alpha1-adrenergic receptor signaling via Gh is subtype specific and independent of its transglutaminase activity.
Transglutaminase participates in the incorporation of latent TGFbeta into the extracellular matrix of aging articular chondrocytes
Role of the cross-linking enzyme tissue transglutaminase in the biological recognition of synthetic biodegradable polymers
Characterization of a clotting protein, isolated from plasma of the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus
Cell type-specific activation of intracellular transglutaminase 2 by oxidative stress or ultraviolet irradiation: implications of transglutaminase 2 in age-related cataractogenesis
Expression of GTP-dependent and GTP-independent tissue-type transglutaminase in cytokine-treated rat brain astrocytes.
Cloning, characterization, and tissue distribution of porcine SPAI, a protein with a transglutaminase substrate domain and the WAP motif.
Immunohistological analysis of transglutaminase factor XIIIA expression in mouse embryonic growth plate
HLA-DQ determines the response to exogenous wheat proteins: a model of gluten sensitivity in transgenic knockout mice
Identification and characterization of a versatile retinoid response element (retinoic acid receptor response element-retinoid X receptor response element) in the mouse tissue transglutaminase gene promoter.
Transglutaminase 2-/- mice reveal a phagocytosis-associated crosstalk between macrophages and apoptotic cells
Co-overexpression of folding modulators improves the solubility of the recombinant guinea pig liver transglutaminase expressed in Escherichia coli
Tissue transglutaminase localization and activity regulation in the extracellular matrix of articular cartilage
Factor XIII Val34Leu polymorphism and gamma-chain cross-linking at the site of microvascular injury in healthy and coumadin-treated subjects
Protein cross-linking mediated by tissue transglutaminase correlates with the maturation of extracellular matrices during lung development
Screening of the adult population in Iran for coeliac disease: comparison of the tissue-transglutaminase antibody and anti-endomysial antibody tests
Cross-linking of wild-type and mutant alpha 2-antiplasmins to fibrin by activated factor XIII and by a tissue transglutaminase
Overexpression of transglutaminase 2 accelerates the erythroid differentiation of human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cell line through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway
Evaluation of the transcription level of the protein disulfide isomerase in different stages from Ancylostoma caninum with a real-time PCR assay
Transcriptional regulation of cell type-specific expression of the TATA-less A subunit gene for human coagulation factor XIII.
Structural and functional analyses of a novel ig-like cell adhesion molecule, hepaCAM, in the human breast carcinoma MCF7 cells
The Caenorhabditis elegans ERp60 homolog protein disulfide isomerase-3 has disulfide isomerase and transglutaminase-like cross-linking activity and is involved in the maintenance of body morphology.
Type 2 transglutaminase differentially modulates striatal cell death in the presence of wild type or mutant huntingtin
Vasoconstrictor effect of aldosterone via angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor: possible role of AT1 receptor dimerization
The metastatic tumor antigen 1-transglutaminase-2 pathway is involved in self-limitation of monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation by upregulating TGF-β1
Detection of specific IgA antibodies against a novel deamidated 8-Mer gliadin peptide in blood plasma samples from celiac patients
Proteotranscriptomic Profiling of 231-BR Breast Cancer Cells: Identification of Potential Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets for Brain Metastasis.
A novel mechanism by which tissue transglutaminase activates signaling events that promote cell survival.
Tissue Transglutaminase and Its Product Isopeptide Are Increased in Alzheimer's Disease and APPswe/PS1dE9 Double Transgenic Mice Brains
Engineered isopeptide bond stabilized fibrin inspired nanoscale peptide based sealants for efficient blood clotting
Endothelial cell-surface tissue transglutaminase inhibits neutrophil adhesion by binding and releasing nitric oxide
In vivo evaluation of two tissue transglutaminase PET tracers in an orthotopic tumour xenograft model
Inability of keratinocytes lacking their specific transglutaminase to form cross-linked envelopes: absence of envelopes as a simple diagnostic test for lamellar ichthyosis
In vivo antigen challenge in celiac disease identifies a single transglutaminase-modified peptide as the dominant A-gliadin T-cell epitope
Direct evidence that involucrin is a major early isopeptide cross-linked component of the keratinocyte cornified cell envelope.
Tissue-type transglutaminase from red sea bream (Pagrus major). Sequence analysis of the cDNA and functional expression in Escherichia coli
A mixture of alpha-helical and 3(10)-helical conformations for involucrin in the human epidermal corneocyte envelope provides a scaffold for the attachment of both lipids and proteins
Two nuclear proteins in tracheal epithelial cells are recognized by antibodies specific to a squamous differentiation marker, sprI
Identification of a transforming growth factor-beta1/bone morphogenetic protein 4 (TGF-beta1/BMP4) response element within the mouse tissue transglutaminase gene promoter.
Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids activate transglutaminases in situ and induce cornification of epidermal keratinocytes.
GTP, an inhibitor of transglutaminases, is hydrolyzed by tissue-type transglutaminase (TGase 2) but not by epidermal-type transglutaminase (TGase 3)
Thymosin beta(4) serves as a glutaminyl substrate of transglutaminase. Labeling with fluorescent dansylcadaverine does not abolish interaction with G-actin
Two novel and one recurrent missense mutation in the factor XIII A gene in two Dutch patients with factor XIII deficiency
TGF-beta1 up-regulates transglutaminase two and fibronectin in dermal fibroblasts: a possible mechanism for the stabilization of tissue inflammation
A distal region of the human TGM1 promoter is required for expression in transgenic mice and cultured keratinocytes
Regulation of human tissue transglutaminase function by magnesium-nucleotide complexes. Identification of distinct binding sites for Mg-GTP and Mg-ATP.
Identification of the calcium binding site and a novel ytterbium site in blood coagulation factor XIII by x-ray crystallography.
GTP binding and signaling by Gh/transglutaminase II involves distinct residues in a unique GTP-binding pocket
Transglutaminase 2 is needed for the formation of an efficient phagocyte portal in macrophages engulfing apoptotic cells
TGFbeta mediates activation of transglutaminase 2 in response to oxidative stress that leads to protein aggregation
Paradoxical inhibition of protein aggregation and precipitation by transglutaminase-catalyzed intermolecular cross-linking.
Alpha1B-adrenoceptor signaling and cell motility: GTPase function of Gh/transglutaminase 2 inhibits cell migration through interaction with cytoplasmic tail of integrin alpha subunits
Transglutaminase-dependent antiproliferative and differentiative properties of nimesulide on B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells
Potential new mechanisms of placental damage in celiac disease: anti-transglutaminase antibodies impair human endometrial angiogenesis
Combined extracellular matrix cross-linking activity of the peroxidase MLT-7 and the dual oxidase BLI-3 is critical for post-embryonic viability in Caenorhabditis elegans
Intramolecular isopeptide bonds give thermodynamic and proteolytic stability to the major pilin protein of Streptococcus pyogenes
Transglutaminase is a therapeutic target for oxidative stress, excitotoxicity and stroke: a new epigenetic kid on the CNS block
CHIP-mediated degradation of transglutaminase 2 negatively regulates tumor growth and angiogenesis in renal cancer
Comparative Examination of Temporal Glyoxalase 1 Variations Following Perforant Pathway Transection, Excitotoxicity, and Controlled Cortical Impact Injury
Induction of GD3/α1-adrenergic receptor/transglutaminase 2-mediated erythroid differentiation in chronic myelogenous leukemic K562 cells
ECM-based microchannel for culturing in vitro vascular tissues with simultaneous perfusion and stretch
Urolithin A suppresses high glucose-induced neuronal amyloidogenesis by modulating TGM2-dependent ER-mitochondria contacts and calcium homeostasis
The importance of the GTP-binding protein tissue transglutaminase in the regulation of cell cycle progression
Immunological characterization and activity of transglutaminases in human normal and malignant prostate and in prostate cancer cell lines
Covalent cross-linking of fibronectin to fibrin is required for maximal cell adhesion to a fibronectin-fibrin matrix.
Tissue transglutaminase facilitates the polymerization of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) and leads to loss of IGFBP-1's ability to inhibit insulin-like growth factor-I-stimulated protein synthesis
Tissue transglutaminase directly regulates adenylyl cyclase resulting in enhanced cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) activation.
Substrate requirements for transglutaminases. Influence of the amino acid residue preceding the amine donor lysine in a native protein.
Cross-linking of a synthetic partial-length (1-28) peptide of the Alzheimer beta/A4 amyloid protein by transglutaminase
Synthesis and in vitro evaluation of enzymatically cross-linked elastin-like polypeptide gels for cartilaginous tissue repair
SPARC, a matricellular protein that functions in cellular differentiation and tissue response to injury
epsilon(gamma-Glutamyl)lysine crosslinks are concentrated in a non-collagenous microfibrillar fraction of cartilage
The analysis of the fine specificity of celiac disease antibodies using tissue transglutaminase fragments
Consequences of seven novel mutations on the expression and structure of keratinocyte transglutaminase.
Structural analysis and allergenicity assessment of an enzymatically cross-linked bovine α-lactalbumin polymer
Keratinocyte growth factor inhibits cross-linked envelope formation and nucleosomal fragmentation in cultured human keratinocytes.
Differential regulation of tissue transglutaminase in rat hepatoma cell lines McA-RH7777 and McA-RH8994: relation to growth rate and cell death
Screening for the preferred substrate sequence of transglutaminase using a phage-displayed peptide library: identification of peptide substrates for TGASE 2 and Factor XIIIA
Autoantibodies from patients with coeliac disease recognize distinct functional domains of the autoantigen tissue transglutaminase
Increased Transglutaminase 2 Expression and Activity in Rodent Models of Obesity/Metabolic Syndrome and Aging
Specific and direct modulation of the interaction between adhesion GPCR GPR56/ADGRG1 and tissue transglutaminase 2 using synthetic ligands
An autocrine loop involving ret and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor mediates retinoic acid-induced neuroblastoma cell differentiation
Trifunctional chemical probes for the consolidated detection and identification of enzyme activities from complex proteomes.
Molecular cloning and characterization of a hemolymph clottable protein from tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon)
Conformational stability of human erythrocyte transglutaminase. Patterns of thermal unfolding at acid and alkaline pH
Regulation of malignant progression by the hypoxia-sensitive transcription factors HIF-1alpha and MTF-1
Metal-catalyzed oxidation of alpha-synuclein: helping to define the relationship between oligomers, protofibrils, and filaments
Blood Clotting Disorders
Thrombophilia includes conditions with increased tendency for excessive blood clotting. Blood clotting occurs when the body has insufficient amounts of specialized proteins that make blood clot and stop bleeding. Here is the latest research on blood clotting disorders.