Transthyretin amyloidosis and the kidney

Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN
L Lobato, Ana Rocha

Abstract

The amyloidoses are protein-misfolding disorders associated with progressive organ dysfunction. Immunoglobulin light chain is the most common, amyloid A the longest recognized, and transthyretin-associated amyloidosis (ATTR) the most frequent inherited systemic form. Although ATTR, an autosomal-dominant disease, is associated with at least 100 different transthyretin (TTR) mutations, the single amino-acid substitution of methionine for valine at position 30 is the most common mutation. Each variant has a different organ involvement, although clinical differences attributed to environmental and genetic factors exist within the same mutation. Peripheral neuropathy and cardiomyopathy are broadly described, and insights into disease reveal that kidney impairment and proteinuria are also clinical features. This review combines clinical and laboratory findings of renal involvement from the main geographic regions of disease occurrence and for different mutations of TTR. Fifteen nephropathic variants have been described, but the TTR V30M mutation is the best documented. Nephropathy affects patients with late-onset neuropathy, low penetrance in the family, and cardiac dysrhythmias. Microalbuminuria can be the disorder's first presentat...Continue Reading

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