The number of melanoma cases worldwide is increasing faster than any other cancer and remains one of the most treatment-refractory malignancies. Despite decades of clinical trials testing chemotherapy and immunotherapy, a standard first-line treatment for metastatic melanoma has not yet been established; tough single agent dacarbazine represents the most common option. This review will focus on metastatic malignant melanoma treatment from single agent until new therapies. An overview of established chemotherapies and immunotherapies, followed by a summary of trials testing the potential combination and new agent are explored.
A Phase II study of autologous irradiated tumor cells plus BCG in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma
Comparison of the combination of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU) and vincristine with two dose schedules of 5-(3,3-dimethyl-1-triazino) imidazole 4-carboxamide (DTIC) in the treatment of disseminated malignant melanoma
Tamoxifen as a single agent for advanced melanoma in postmenopausal women. A phase II study of the EORTC Malignant Melanoma Cooperative Group
Effective combination chemo/hormonal therapy for malignant melanoma: experience with three consecutive trials
Improved results with the addition of interferon alfa-2b to dacarbazine in the treatment of patients with metastatic malignant melanoma
Final report of the French multicenter phase II study of the nitrosourea fotemustine in 153 evaluable patients with disseminated malignant melanoma including patients with cerebral metastases
Phase I study of cancer therapy with recombinant interleukin-2 administered by intravenous bolus injection
Combination therapy with interleukin-2 and alpha-interferon for the treatment of patients with advanced cancer
Dacarbazine versus dacarbazine-vindesine in disseminated malignant melanoma: a randomized phase II study
A prospective evaluation of a triple-drug regimen containing cisplatin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (CVD) for metastatic melanoma
The importance of tamoxifen to a cisplatin-containing regimen in the treatment of metastatic melanoma
Results of clinical trials with the administration of interleukin 2 and adoptive immunotherapy with activated cells in patients with cancer
Evaluation of cis-platinum and DTIC combination chemotherapy in disseminated melanoma. A Southwest Oncology Group Study
Analysis of a series of sixty soft tissue sarcomas in adults treated with a cyclophosphamide-vincristine-adriamycin-dacarbazine (CYVADIC) combination
Randomized phase III trial of vinblastine, bleomycin, and cis-dichlorodiammine-platinum versus dacarbazine in malignant melanoma
A trial of imidazole carboxamide and corynebacterium parvum in disseminated melanoma: clinical and immunologic results
Effects of recombinant tumour necrosis factor (rTNF-alpha) in cancer. Observations on the acute phase protein reaction and immunoglobulin synthesis after high dose recombinant TNF-alpha administration in isolated limb perfusions in cancer patients
Docetaxel (Taxotere) in advanced malignant melanoma: a phase II study of the EORTC Early Clinical Trials Group
Synergistic interaction between cisplatin and tamoxifen delays the emergence of cisplatin resistance in head and neck cancer cell lines
A randomised trial of vindesine plus interferon-alpha 2b compared with interferon-alpha 2b or vindesine alone in the treatment of advanced malignant melanoma
Tamoxifen delays the development of resistance to cisplatin in human melanoma and ovarian cancer cell lines
Multicenter randomized trial of dacarbazine alone or in combination with two different doses and schedules of interferon alfa-2a in the treatment of advanced melanoma
Sequential chemoimmunotherapy with cisplatin, interleukin-2, and interferon alfa-2a for metastatic melanoma
A phase II trial of concomitant human interleukin-2 and interferon-alpha-2a in patients with disseminated malignant melanoma
Randomized phase III trial of treatment with high-dose interleukin-2 either alone or in combination with interferon alfa-2a in patients with advanced melanoma
Phase II trial of carboplatin in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma. A report from the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group
Phase II trial of docetaxel in patients with advanced cutaneous malignant melanoma previously untreated with chemotherapy
Dacarbazine, cisplatin and carmustine, with or without tamoxifen, for metastatic melanoma: 5-year follow-up
Experience with interferon alpha 2b combined with dacarbazine in the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing the response rates of carmustine, dacarbazine, and cisplatin with and without tamoxifen in patients with metastatic melanoma. National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group
Treatment of metastatic melanoma with combined chemotherapy containing cisplatin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (CVD) and biotherapy using interleukin-2 and interferon-alpha
Phase II trial of docetaxel (Taxotere) in patients with metastatic melanoma previously untreated with cytotoxic chemotherapy
A phase II study of cell cycle inhibitor UCN-01 in patients with metastatic melanoma: a California Cancer Consortium trial.
Potentiation of cytotoxicity of paclitaxel in combination with Cl-IB-MECA in human C32 metastatic melanoma cells: A new possible therapeutic strategy for melanoma
Development of a human three-dimensional organotypic skin-melanoma spheroid model for in vitro drug testing
c-Abl and Arg are activated in human primary melanomas, promote melanoma cell invasion via distinct pathways, and drive metastatic progression.
The cystine/cysteine cycle and GSH are independent and crucial antioxidant systems in malignant melanoma cells and represent druggable targets.
Rb-Raf-1 interaction disruptor RRD-251 induces apoptosis in metastatic melanoma cells and synergizes with dacarbazine
Neck dissection and post-operative chemotherapy with dimethyl triazeno imidazole carboxamide and cisplatin protocol are useful for oral mucosal melanoma
Electroporation increases antitumoral efficacy of the bcl-2 antisense G3139 and chemotherapy in a human melanoma xenograft
Post-embryonic nerve-associated precursors to adult pigment cells: genetic requirements and dynamics of morphogenesis and differentiation.
Imatinib reverses doxorubicin resistance by affecting activation of STAT3-dependent NF-κB and HSP27/p38/AKT pathways and by inhibiting ABCB1
A natural bacterial-derived product, the metalloprotease arazyme, inhibits metastatic murine melanoma by inducing MMP-8 cross-reactive antibodies
Anti-DR5 monoclonal antibody-mediated DTIC-loaded nanoparticles combining chemotherapy and immunotherapy for malignant melanoma: target formulation development and in vitro anticancer activity.
Future of radiation therapy for malignant melanoma in an era of newer, more effective biological agents.
Targeting the Cellular Signaling: BRAF Inhibition and Beyond for the Treatment of Metastatic Malignant Melanoma
The effect of metastatic site and decade of diagnosis on the individual burden of metastatic melanoma: contemporary estimates of average years of life lost
The glutamate release inhibitor Riluzole decreases migration, invasion, and proliferation of melanoma cells.
Prospective analysis of association between use of statins and melanoma risk in the Women's Health Initiative.
Metastatic malignant melanoma of the gallbladder diagnosed by cytology of endoscopic naso-gallbladder drainage fluid
Lysosomes and unfolded protein response, determinants of differential resistance of melanoma cells to vinca alkaloids
Preclinical study on combined chemo- and nonviral gene therapy for sensitization of melanoma using a human TNF-alpha expressing MIDGE DNA vector
Combined cytotoxic activity of an infectious, but non-replicative herpes simplex virus type 1 and plasmacytoid dendritic cells against tumour cells
Differential involvement of glutathione S-transferase mu 1 and multidrug resistance protein 1 in melanoma acquired resistance to vinca alkaloids
Melanoma cells show a heterogeneous range of sensitivity to ionizing radiation and are radiosensitized by inhibition of B-RAF with PLX-4032
Influence of the Expression Level of O6-Alkylguanine-DNA Alkyltransferase on the Formation of DNA Interstrand Crosslinks Induced by Chloroethylnitrosoureas in Cells: A Quantitation Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
(18)F]MEL050 as a melanin-targeted PET tracer: Fully automated radiosynthesis and comparison to (18)F-FDG for the detection of pigmented melanoma in mice primary subcutaneous tumors and pulmonary metastases
Regulatory properties of statins and rho gtpases prenylation inhibitiors to stimulate melanoma immunogenicity and promote anti-melanoma immune response
Sensitization of recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-resistant malignant melanomas by quercetin
Hospitalisation costs of metastatic melanoma in France; the MELISSA study (MELanoma In hoSpital coSts Assessment)
BCL-2 Family Proteins
BLC-2 family proteins are a group that share the same homologous BH domain. They play many different roles including pro-survival signals, mitochondria-mediated apoptosis and removal or damaged cells. They are often regulated by phosphorylation, affecting their catalytic activity. Here is the latest research on BCL-2 family proteins.