Treatment of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in U.S. full-scale water treatment systems

Water Research
Timothy D ApplemanEric R V Dickenson


The near ubiquitous presence of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in humans has raised concerns about potential human health effects from these chemicals, some of which are both extremely persistent and bioaccumulative. Because some of these chemicals are highly water soluble, one major pathway for human exposure is the consumption of contaminated drinking water. This study measured concentrations of PFASs in 18 raw drinking water sources and 2 treated wastewater effluents and evaluated 15 full-scale treatment systems for the attenuation of PFASs in water treatment utilities throughout the U.S. A liquid-chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry method was used to enable measurement of a suite of 23 PFASs, including perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs). Despite the differences in reporting levels, the PFASs that were detected in >70% of the source water samples (n = 39) included PFSAs, perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (74%), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (79%), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (84%), and PFCAs, perfluoropentanoic acid (74%), perfluorohexanoic acid (79%), perfluoroheptanoic acid (74%), and perfluorooctanoic acid (74%). More importantly, water treatment techniques such as fer...Continue Reading


Dec 3, 2004·Environmental Science & Technology·Hisao HoriRyuichi Arakawa
Jun 2, 2005·Environmental Science & Technology·Hiroshi MoriwakiYasuaki Maeda
Mar 30, 2006·Environmental Science & Technology·Ewan Sinclair, Kurunthachalam Kannan
Aug 12, 2006·Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine·Edward Anthony EmmettLeslie Michael Shaw
Dec 22, 2006·Environmental Science & Technology·Chuyang Y TangJames O Leckie
Feb 17, 2007·Water Science and Technology : a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research·J Chen, P Zhang
May 24, 2007·Toxicological Sciences : an Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology·Christopher LauJennifer Seed
Sep 8, 2007·Environmental Science & Technology·Shoji NakayamaAndrew B Lindstrom
Sep 19, 2007·Environmental Science & Technology·Takashi YamamotoYasuyuki Shibata
Oct 6, 2007·Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)·Jing ChenJian Liu
May 7, 2008·Chemosphere·Vasile I FurduiScott A Mabury
Jun 13, 2008·Chemosphere·Megan H PlumleeMartin Reinhard
Aug 14, 2009·Environmental Science & Technology·Yim Ling MakNobuyoshi Yamashita
Sep 9, 2009·Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences·Paul C RumsbyTom Hall
Sep 14, 2010·Environmental Science & Technology·Christian EschauzierPim de Voogt
Mar 23, 2011·Environmental Geochemistry and Health·Behnam KeshavarziAhad Malekzadeh
Apr 8, 2011·Environmental Science & Technology·Kayoko KatoAntonia M Calafat
Jun 2, 2011·Water Research·Sokichi TakagiKurunthachalam Kannan
Jul 28, 2011·Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management·Robert C BuckStefan P J van Leeuwen
Aug 27, 2011·Environmental Science & Technology·Andrew B LindstromE Laurence Libelo
Dec 29, 2011·Environmental Science & Technology·Christian EschauzierPim De Voogt
Jan 26, 2012·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·Philippe GrandjeanCarsten Heilmann
Jan 12, 2013·Environmental Health Perspectives·Verónica M VieiraTony Fletcher
Jul 13, 2013·Journal of Hazardous Materials·Timothy D ApplemanChristopher P Higgins
Mar 2, 2013·Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts·Sohel SaikatRobie Kamanyire

❮ Previous
Next ❯


Sep 19, 2015·Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry·Claudia E MüllerRichard G Luthy
Jan 13, 2017·Environmental Science & Technology·Gunnar R StrattonSelma Mededovic Thagard
Feb 23, 2017·Environmental Science & Technology·Zhanyun WangIan T Cousins
Dec 19, 2017·Environmental Science and Pollution Research International·Zhibo LuMinghong Cai
Jul 2, 2019·Water Environment Research : a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation·Rooney Kim LazcanoLinda S Lee
Dec 7, 2018·Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology·Deanna P ScherVirginia L Yingling
Jan 17, 2020·The Journal of Chemical Physics·David BarkerElsebeth Schröder
Feb 9, 2020·Environmental Science and Pollution Research International·Saerom ParkJake Hurst
Jan 30, 2020·Current Environmental Health Reports·Debbie Lee, Heather M Murphy
Jul 20, 2017·Environmental Monitoring and Assessment·John Baptist Nzukizi MudumbiElie Fereche Itoba-Tombo
Jun 1, 2019·Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology·Brian C CroneJonathan G Pressman
Feb 12, 2020·Chemosphere·Matthew AskelandJorge Paz-Ferreiro
Oct 20, 2020·The Science of the Total Environment·Melanie KahRai Kookana
Feb 5, 2021·International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health·Shuangyi ZhangLisa Axe
Nov 7, 2020·International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health·Jay N MeegodaRichard W Marsh
Feb 15, 2021·Chemosphere·Fuhar DixitMadjid Mohseni

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Related Feeds

Blood Clotting Disorders

Thrombophilia includes conditions with increased tendency for excessive blood clotting. Blood clotting occurs when the body has insufficient amounts of specialized proteins that make blood clot and stop bleeding. Here is the latest research on blood clotting disorders.