Treatment of Tardive Dyskinesia: A General Overview with Focus on the Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 Inhibitors

Drugs
Nicki Niemann, J Jankovic

Abstract

Tardive dyskinesia (TD) encompasses the spectrum of iatrogenic hyperkinetic movement disorders following exposure to dopamine receptor-blocking agents (DRBAs). Despite the advent of atypical or second- and third-generation antipsychotics with a presumably lower risk of complications, TD remains a persistent and challenging problem. Prevention is the first step in mitigating the risk of TD, but early recognition, gradual withdrawal of offending medications, and appropriate treatment are also critical. As TD is often a persistent and troublesome disorder, specific antidyskinetic therapies are often needed for symptomatic relief. The vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) inhibitors, which include tetrabenazine, deutetrabenazine, and valbenazine, are considered the treatment of choice for most patients with TD. Deutetrabenazine-a deuterated version of tetrabenazine-and valbenazine, the purified parent product of one of the main tetrabenazine metabolites, are novel VMAT2 inhibitors and the only drugs to receive approval from the US FDA for the treatment of TD. VMAT2 inhibitors deplete presynaptic dopamine and reduce involuntary movements in many hyperkinetic movement disorders, particularly TD, Huntington disease, and Tourette s...Continue Reading

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Jul 12, 2018·Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics·H Bashir, J Jankovic
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Related Concepts

Valbenazine
Deutetrabenazine
SLC18A2 protein, human
Tardive Dyskinesia
Gilles De La Tourette Syndrome
Akinetic-Rigid Variant of Huntington Disease
Xenazine
Antipsychotic Effect
United States Food and Drug Administration
Valine

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