All regulatory processes require components that sense the environmental or metabolic conditions of the cell, and sophisticated sensory proteins have been studied in great detail. During the last few years, it turned out that enzymes can control gene expression in response to the availability of their substrates. Here, we review four different mechanisms by which these enzymes interfere with regulation in bacteria. First, some enzymes have acquired a DNA-binding domain and act as direct transcription repressors by binding DNA in the absence of their substrates. A second class is represented by aconitase, which can bind iron responsive elements in the absence of iron to control the expression of genes involved in iron homoeostasis. The third class of these enzymes is sugar permeases of the phosphotransferase system that control the activity of transcription regulators by phosphorylating them in the absence of the specific substrate. Finally, a fourth class of regulatory enzymes controls the activity of transcription factors by inhibitory protein-protein interactions. We suggest that the enzymes that are active in the control of gene expression should be designated as trigger enzymes. An analysis of the occurrence of trigger enzy...Continue Reading
Regulation of proline utilization in Salmonella typhimurium: a membrane-associated dehydrogenase binds DNA in vitro
Glucose and glucose-6-phosphate interaction with Xyl repressor proteins from Bacillus spp. may contribute to regulation of xylose utilization
Proline dehydrogenase activity of the transcriptional repressor PutA is required for induction of the put operon by proline.
Sequence analysis identifies the proline dehydrogenase and delta 1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase domains of the multifunctional Escherichia coli PutA protein
PutA protein, a membrane-associated flavin dehydrogenase, acts as a redox-dependent transcriptional regulator
Regulatory noise in prokaryotic promoters: how bacteria learn to respond to novel environmental signals
The localization of the phosphorylation site of BglG, the response regulator of the Escherichia coli bgl sensory system.
Purification and characterization of Bacillus subtilis PyrR, a bifunctional pyr mRNA-binding attenuation protein/uracil phosphoribosyltransferase.
Adaptation of an enzyme to regulatory function: structure of Bacillus subtilis PyrR, a pyr RNA-binding attenuation protein and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase
Antagonistic effects of dual PTS-catalysed phosphorylation on the Bacillus subtilis transcriptional activator LevR
PRD--a protein domain involved in PTS-dependent induction and carbon catabolite repression of catabolic operons in bacteria
pyrH-encoded UMP-kinase directly participates in pyrimidine-specific modulation of promoter activity in Escherichia coli
Nitrogen and oxygen regulation of Bacillus subtilis nasDEF encoding NADH-dependent nitrite reductase by TnrA and ResDE
Expression of ptsG, the gene for the major glucose PTS transporter in Escherichia coli, is repressed by Mlc and induced by growth on glucose
The ATP-binding cassette subunit of the maltose transporter MalK antagonizes MalT, the activator of the Escherichia coli mal regulon
The Escherichia coli NadR regulator is endowed with nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase activity
A new mechanism for the control of a prokaryotic transcriptional regulator: antagonistic binding of positive and negative effectors
Role of TnrA in nitrogen source-dependent repression of Bacillus subtilis glutamate synthase gene expression
A novel regulatory role of glucose transporter of Escherichia coli: membrane sequestration of a global repressor Mlc
Bacillus subtilis glutamine synthetase controls gene expression through a protein-protein interaction with transcription factor TnrA
The Aes protein directly controls the activity of MalT, the central transcriptional activator of the Escherichia coli maltose regulon
Analysis of the interaction between the global regulator Mlc and EIIBGlc of the glucose-specific phosphotransferase system in Escherichia coli
Regulation of the Escherichia coli antiterminator protein BglG by phosphorylation at multiple sites and evidence for transfer of phosphoryl groups between monomers.
Control of the Bacillus subtilis antiterminator protein GlcT by phosphorylation. Elucidation of the phosphorylation chain leading to inactivation of GlcT
Identification and characterization of the DNA-binding domain of the multifunctional PutA flavoenzyme.
MalK, the ATP-binding cassette component of the Escherichia coli maltodextrin transporter, inhibits the transcriptional activator malt by antagonizing inducer binding.
Escherichia coli dihydroxyacetone kinase controls gene expression by binding to transcription factor DhaR
Switching aconitase B between catalytic and regulatory modes involves iron-dependent dimer formation
Characterization of a bifunctional PutA homologue from Bradyrhizobium japonicum and identification of an active site residue that modulates proline reduction of the flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor
Exploring the proline-dependent conformational change in the multifunctional PutA flavoprotein by tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy
The RsbRST stress module in bacteria: a signalling system that may interact with different output modules
Transcriptional regulators à la carte: engineering new effector specificities in bacterial regulatory proteins
Feedback-resistant mutations in Bacillus subtilis glutamine synthetase are clustered in the active site
Mlc of Thermus thermophilus: a glucose-specific regulator for a glucose/mannose ABC transporter in the absence of the phosphotransferase system
How phosphotransferase system-related protein phosphorylation regulates carbohydrate metabolism in bacteria
Opposing effects of histidine phosphorylation regulate the AtxA virulence transcription factor in Bacillus anthracis
RibR, a possible regulator of the Bacillus subtilis riboflavin biosynthetic operon, in vivo interacts with the 5'-untranslated leader of rib mRNA
A regulatory protein-protein interaction governs glutamate biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis: the glutamate dehydrogenase RocG moonlights in controlling the transcription factor GltC
Transketolase A, an enzyme in central metabolism, derepresses the marRAB multiple antibiotic resistance operon of Escherichia coli by interaction with MarR
Determinants of interaction specificity of the Bacillus subtilis GlcT antitermination protein: functionality and phosphorylation specificity depend on the arrangement of the regulatory domains.
Novel activities of glycolytic enzymes in Bacillus subtilis: interactions with essential proteins involved in mRNA processing.
Functional characterization of key enzymes involved in L-glutamate synthesis and degradation in the thermotolerant and methylotrophic bacterium Bacillus methanolicus
Glutamate metabolism in Bacillus subtilis: gene expression and enzyme activities evolved to avoid futile cycles and to allow rapid responses to perturbations of the system
A metabolic operon in extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli promotes fitness under stressful conditions and invasion of eukaryotic cells
Negative regulation of expression of the nitrate assimilation nirA operon in the heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120
A high-frequency mutation in Bacillus subtilis: requirements for the decryptification of the gudB glutamate dehydrogenase gene
Identification of Bacillus subtilis SipW as a bifunctional signal peptidase that controls surface-adhered biofilm formation
A trigger enzyme in Mycoplasma pneumoniae: impact of the glycerophosphodiesterase GlpQ on virulence and gene expression
Think globally, act locally: how bacteria integrate local decisions with their global cellular programme
The EAL domain protein YciR acts as a trigger enzyme in a c-di-GMP signalling cascade in E. coli biofilm control
Chronic phencyclidine increases synapsin-1 and synaptic adaptation proteins in the medial prefrontal cortex
Activity of the response regulator CiaR in mutants of Streptococcus pneumoniae R6 altered in acetyl phosphate production
Transcription factor TnrA inhibits the biosynthetic activity of glutamine synthetase in Bacillus subtilis
Siderophore synthesis in Magnaporthe grisea is essential for vegetative growth, conidiation and resistance to oxidative stress
How are signals transduced across the cytoplasmic membrane? Transport proteins as transmitter of information
Competitive activation of the Escherichia coli argO gene coding for an arginine exporter by the transcriptional regulators Lrp and ArgP
The influence of Bordetella pertussis bvgAS operon on formation and resolution of plasmid-chromosome cointegrates in Escherichia coli K12 mutants with damages in common components of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system
Precise excision of TN5 in Escherichia coli K12 mutants with alterations in common component of phosphotransferase system and in subunits of DNA-gyrase
Diversity, versatility and complexity of bacterial gene regulation mechanisms: opportunities and drawbacks for applications in synthetic biology
PrcR, a PucR-type transcriptional activator, is essential for proline utilization and mediates proline-responsive expression of the proline utilization operon putBCP in Bacillus subtilis
A novel GlnR target gene, nnaR, is involved in nitrate/nitrite assimilation in Streptomyces coelicolor
ThrR, a DNA-binding transcription factor involved in controlling threonine biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis
Synergetic engineering of central carbon and nitrogen metabolism for the production of N-acetylglucosamine in Bacillus subtilis
Pseudomonad reverse carbon catabolite repression, interspecies metabolite exchange, and consortial division of labor.
The Bacillus subtilis late competence operon comE is transcriptionally regulated by yutB and under post-transcription initiation control by comN (yrzD)
An extracytoplasmic protein and a moonlighting enzyme modulate synthesis of c-di-AMP in Listeria monocytogenes.
Evidence for synergistic control of glutamate biosynthesis by glutamate dehydrogenases and glutamate in Bacillus subtilis
Control of glutamate homeostasis in Bacillus subtilis: a complex interplay between ammonium assimilation, glutamate biosynthesis and degradation
The trigger enzyme PepA (aminopeptidase A) of Escherichia coli, a transcriptional repressor that generates positive supercoiling
The pleiotropic transcriptional regulator NlpR contributes to the modulation of nitrogen metabolism, lipogenesis and triacylglycerol accumulation in oleaginous rhodococci
Variants of the Bacillus subtilis LysR-Type Regulator GltC With Altered Activator and Repressor Function
Exploring the Potential Role of Moonlighting Function of the Surface-Associated Proteins From Mycobacterium bovis BCG Moreau and Pasteur by Comparative Proteomic
The CymR regulator in complex with the enzyme CysK controls cysteine metabolism in Bacillus subtilis
The fumarate/succinate antiporter DcuB of Escherichia coli is a bifunctional protein with sites for regulation of DcuS-dependent gene expression.
A Bacillus subtilis ΔpdxT mutant suppresses vitamin B6 limitation by acquiring mutations enhancing pdxS gene dosage and ammonium assimilation.
Analysis of a Photosynthetic Cyanobacterium Rich in Internal Membrane Systems via Gradient Profiling by Sequencing (Grad-seq).
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