Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) 2 is a homolog to the carboxypeptidase ACE, which generates angiotensin II, the main active peptide of renin-angiotensin system (RAS). After the cloning of ACE2 in 2000, three major ACE2 functions have been described so far. First ACE2 has emerged as a potent negative regulator of the RAS counterbalancing the multiple functions of ACE. By targeting angiotensin II ACE2 exhibits a protective role in the cardiovascular system and many other organs. Second ACE2 was identified as an essential receptor for the SARS coronavirus that causes severe acute lung failure. Downregulation of ACE2 strongly contributes to the pathogenesis of severe lung failure. Third, both ACE2 and its homologue Collectrin can associate with amino acid transporters and play essential role in the absorption of amino acids in the kidney and gut. In this review, we will discuss the multiple biological functions of ACE2.
In vivo metabolism of angiotensin I by neutral endopeptidase (EC 220.127.116.11) in spontaneously hypertensive rats
Angiotensin-converting enzyme: zinc- and inhibitor-binding stoichiometries of the somatic and testis isozymes
Release of angiotensin-(1-7) from the rat hindlimb: influence of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition
A human homolog of angiotensin-converting enzyme. Cloning and functional expression as a captopril-insensitive carboxypeptidase
A novel angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) converts angiotensin I to angiotensin 1-9
Collectrin, a collecting duct-specific transmembrane glycoprotein, is a novel homolog of ACE2 and is developmentally regulated in embryonic kidneys
Effectively targetting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in cardiovascular and renal disease: rationale for using angiotensin II receptor blockers in combination with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
Angiotensin converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism is associated with susceptibility and outcome in acute respiratory distress syndrome
Nonpeptide antagonists of AT1 receptor for angiotensin II delay the onset of acute respiratory distress syndrome
Substrate-based design of the first class of angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2) inhibitors
Molecular cloning, mRNA expression and chromosomal localization of mouse angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (mACE2)
Heart block, ventricular tachycardia, and sudden death in ACE2 transgenic mice with downregulated connexins
Increased angiotensin-(1-7)-forming activity in failing human heart ventricles: evidence for upregulation of the angiotensin-converting enzyme Homologue ACE2
Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2): comparative modeling of the active site, specificity requirements, and chloride dependence
ACE2 X-ray structures reveal a large hinge-bending motion important for inhibitor binding and catalysis.
Upregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 after myocardial infarction by blockade of angiotensin II receptors
Expression of an angiotensin-(1-7)-producing fusion protein produces cardioprotective effects in rats
Increased ACE 2 and decreased ACE protein in renal tubules from diabetic mice: a renoprotective combination?
Regulatory roles for APJ, a seven-transmembrane receptor related to angiotensin-type 1 receptor in blood pressure in vivo.
Tissue distribution of ACE2 protein, the functional receptor for SARS coronavirus. A first step in understanding SARS pathogenesis
The novel angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) homolog, ACE2, is selectively expressed by adult Leydig cells of the testis
Hartnup disorder is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the neutral amino acid transporter SLC6A19
Upregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 by all-trans retinoic acid in spontaneously hypertensive rats
Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin II receptor blockers on cardiac angiotensin-converting enzyme 2
Apical entry and release of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus in polarized Calu-3 lung epithelial cells
Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade partially attenuates hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in newborn piglets: relationship with the nitrergic system
TMPRSS2 and ADAM17 cleave ACE2 differentially and only proteolysis by TMPRSS2 augments entry driven by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein
Molecular targets of antihypertensive peptides: understanding the mechanisms of action based on the pathophysiology of hypertension
Losartan and enalapril decrease viral absorption and interleukin 1 beta production by macrophages in an experimental dengue virus infection
Report of the 'mechanisms of lung injury and immunomodulator interventions in influenza' workshop, 21 March 2010, Ventura, California, USA
Egg ovotransferrin-derived ACE inhibitory peptide IRW increases ACE2 but decreases proinflammatory genes expression in mesenteric artery of spontaneously hypertensive rats
Three key proteases--angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2 and renin--within and beyond the renin-angiotensin system
Proteome-derived peptide libraries to study the substrate specificity profiles of carboxypeptidases.
The role of the angiotensin II type I receptor blocker telmisartan in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a brief review
The functional role of endogenous APJ agonists; Apelin and Elabela/Toddler in cardiovascular diseases
Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2: A double-edged sword?
The combination of ACE I/D and ACE2 G8790A polymorphisms revels susceptibility to hypertension: A genetic association study in Brazilian patients
The expression level of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 determines the severity of COVID-19: lung and heart tissue as targets.
Associations of hypertension with the severity and fatality of SARS-CoV-2 infection: A meta-analysis
Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with hypertension on renin-angiotensin system inhibitors
Knowledge synthesis of 100 million biomedical documents augments the deep expression profiling of coronavirus receptors
A rational roadmap for SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pharmacotherapeutic research and development: IUPHAR Review 29.
ACE2, the Receptor that Enables the Infection by SARS-CoV-2: Biochemistry, Structure, Allostery and Evaluation of the Potential Development of ACE2 Modulators
SARS-CoV-2 as a Factor to Disbalance the Renin-Angiotensin System: A Suspect in the Case of Exacerbated IL-6 Production
Enhanced poly(γ-glutamic acid) production by H2 O2 -induced reactive oxygen species in the fermentation of Bacillus subtilis NX-2
ACE2 gene polymorphisms and invasively measured central pulse pressure in cardiac patients indicated for coronarography
Recommendations for the prevention and treatment of the novel coronavirus pneumonia in the elderly in China.
The Yin and Yang of ACE/ACE2 Pathways: The Rationale for the Use of Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibitors in COVID-19 Patients
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