Tuberculous peritonitis in chronic renal failure managed by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine
K J McKerrow, T J Neale
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is being increasingly used to treat chronic renal failure in New Zealand. Peritonitis due in particular to gram positive organisms remains the major complication. Three of 92 CAPD patients trained in the Wellington Renal Unit had tuberculous peritonitis, a previously rarely reported complication. Gram positive or Gram negative bacterial infections preceded or followed isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Differential peritoneal fluid leucocyte counts were not predictive of tuberculous infection and total leucocyte counts remained elevated in tuberculous patients treated for other concurrent bacterial peritonitides. Systemic toxicity was not encountered in these patients, symptoms being confined almost entirely to the peritoneum. CAPD was continued during treatment with anti-tuberculous therapy, in all three patients. However, peritoneal pain on dialysis fluid in-flow necessitated temporary hemodialysis management in two. Anti-tuberculous chemoprophylaxis may be prudent in the at-risk Polynesian patient with chronic renal failure who is being considered for CAPD management.