Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and the Gastrointestinal Epithelium: Implications for the Gut-Brain Axis and Hypertension.

Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Christopher L SoudersChristopher J Martyniuk


The colonic epithelium is the site of production and transport of many vasoactive metabolites and neurotransmitters that can modulate the immune system, affect cellular metabolism, and subsequently regulate blood pressure. As an important interface between the microbiome and its host, the colon can contribute to the development of hypertension. In this critical review, we highlight the role of colonic inflammation and microbial metabolites on the gut brain axis in the pathology of hypertension, with special emphasis on the interaction between tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) metabolites. Here, we review the current literature and identify novel pathways in the colonic epithelium related to hypertension. A network analysis on transcriptome data previously generated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats reveals differences in several pathways associated with inflammation involving TNFα (NF-κB and STAT Expression Targets) as well as oxidative stress. We also identify down-regulation of networks associated with gastrointestinal function, cardiovascular function, enteric nervous system function, and cholinergic and adrenergic transmission. The analysis also uncovered tra...Continue Reading


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