Twenty-five-year panorama of corneal immunology: emerging concepts in the immunopathogenesis of microbial keratitis, peripheral ulcerative keratitis, and corneal transplant rejection

Cornea
M Reza DanaPedram Hamrah

Abstract

To describe the most recent advances in our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the immunopathogenesis of corneal immunoinflammatory disorders including microbial keratitis, peripheral ulcerative keratitis. and allograft rejection. Review of the published peer-reviewed literature that has contributed significantly to our modern understanding of corneal immunology. In addition, the authors have summarized the information in conceptual diagrams that highlight the critical cellular and molecular pathways that lead to corneal immune responses in the two most thoroughly studied corneal immune disorders, herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) and transplant rejection. In spite of the wide array of molecular and cellular factors that mediate corneal immunity, critical mechanistic facets are shared by the various corneal immunoinflammatory disorders. These include activation and migration of local antigen-presenting cells (APCs), including Langerhans cells (LCs), upregulation in pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-alpha) that can mediate a wide array of immune functions in addition to up-regulating protease expression. and chemokines that play a c...Continue Reading

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