Two isoforms of glutamate decarboxylase: why?

Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
J J Soghomonian, D L Martin

Abstract

Adults express two isoforms of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), GAD67 and GAD65, which are encoded by different independently regulated genes, a situation that differs from that of other neurotransmitters. In this article, J-J. Soghomonian and David Martin review current knowledge on the differences between these two isoforms. Both isoforms are present in most GABA-containing neurones in the CNS, but GAD65 appears to be targeted to membranes and nerve endings, whereas GAD67 is more widely distributed in cells. Both forms can synthesize transmitter GABA, but GAD67 might preferentially synthesize cytoplasmic GABA and GAD65 might preferentially synthesize GABA for vesicular release. Several lines of evidence suggest that the two forms have different roles in the coding of information by GABA-containing neurones.

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Related Concepts

Tissue Membrane
GAD1
Neurosteroids
Glutamate Decarboxylase
Nerve Endings
Gammalon
Cytoplasmic
GAD2
Neurotransmitters
GAD1 gene

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