Apr 18, 2015

Type 2 cytokines: mechanisms and therapeutic strategies

Nature Reviews. Immunology
T A Wynn


Type 2 immune responses are defined by the cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13, which can either be host protective or have pathogenic activity. Type 2 immunity promotes antihelminth immunity, suppresses type 1-driven autoimmune disease, neutralizes toxins, maintains metabolic homeostasis, and regulates wound repair and tissue regeneration pathways following infection or injury. Nevertheless, when type 2 responses are dysregulated, they can become important drivers of disease. Type 2 immunity induces a complex inflammatory response characterized by eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, type 2 innate lymphoid cells, IL-4-and/or IL-13-conditioned macrophages and T helper 2 (TH2) cells, which are crucial to the pathogenesis of many allergic and fibrotic disorders. As chronic type 2 immune responses promote disease, the mechanisms that regulate their maintenance are thought to function as crucial disease modifiers. This Review discusses the many endogenous negative regulatory mechanisms that antagonize type 2 immunity and highlights how therapies that target some of these pathways are being developed to treat type 2-mediated disease.

  • References3
  • Citations76


Mentioned in this Paper

TSLP protein, human
Metabolic Process, Cellular
Immune Response
Pathogenic Aspects
Biochemical Pathway
Cacna1b protein, mouse
Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome

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