Apr 18, 2015

Type 2 cytokines: mechanisms and therapeutic strategies

Nature Reviews. Immunology
T A Wynn

Abstract

Type 2 immune responses are defined by the cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13, which can either be host protective or have pathogenic activity. Type 2 immunity promotes antihelminth immunity, suppresses type 1-driven autoimmune disease, neutralizes toxins, maintains metabolic homeostasis, and regulates wound repair and tissue regeneration pathways following infection or injury. Nevertheless, when type 2 responses are dysregulated, they can become important drivers of disease. Type 2 immunity induces a complex inflammatory response characterized by eosinophils, mast cells, basophils, type 2 innate lymphoid cells, IL-4-and/or IL-13-conditioned macrophages and T helper 2 (TH2) cells, which are crucial to the pathogenesis of many allergic and fibrotic disorders. As chronic type 2 immune responses promote disease, the mechanisms that regulate their maintenance are thought to function as crucial disease modifiers. This Review discusses the many endogenous negative regulatory mechanisms that antagonize type 2 immunity and highlights how therapies that target some of these pathways are being developed to treat type 2-mediated disease.

  • References3
  • Citations76

Citations

Mentioned in this Paper

TSLP protein, human
Metabolic Process, Cellular
Eosinophil
Immune Response
Pathogenic Aspects
Biochemical Pathway
Pathogenesis
Cacna1b protein, mouse
Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
Basophils

Related Feeds

Autoimmune Diseases

Autoimmune diseases occur as a result of an attack by the immune system on the body’s own tissues resulting in damage and dysfunction. There are different types of autoimmune diseases, in which there is a complex and unknown interaction between genetics and the environment. Discover the latest research on autoimmune diseases here.

Allergy and Asthma

Allergy and asthma are inflammatory disorders that are triggered by the activation of an allergen-specific regulatory t cell. These t cells become activated when allergens are recognized by allergen-presenting cells. Here is the latest research on allergy and asthma.

Adult Stem Cells

Adult stem cells reside in unique niches that provide vital cues for their survival, self-renewal, and differentiation. They hold great promise for use in tissue repair and regeneration as a novel therapeutic strategies. Here is the latest research.

Basophils

Basophils are myeloid cells with a high affinity IgE receptor and is involved in inflammatory responses during allergy. Discover the latest research on Basophils here.

Related Papers

Science's STKE : Signal Transduction Knowledge Environment
Ann Kelly-WelchAchsah D Keegan
Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Andrew G Jarnicki, Padraic G Fallon
Clinical and Experimental Allergy : Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
P PouliotE Y Bissonnette
© 2020 Meta ULC. All rights reserved