Type II Toxin-Antitoxin Distribution and Adaptive Aspects on Xanthomonas Genomes: Focus on Xanthomonas citri

Frontiers in Microbiology
Paula M M MartinsAlessandra A de Souza

Abstract

Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems were first described as being designed to prevent plasmid loss in bacteria. However, with the increase in prokaryotic genome sequencing, recently many TAs have been found in bacterial chromosomes, having other biological functions, such as environmental stress response. To date, only few studies have focused on TA systems in phytopathogens, and their possible impact on the bacterial fitness. This may be especially important for pathogens like Xanthomonas spp., which live epiphytically before entering the host. In this study, we looked for TA systems in the genomes of 10 Xanthomonas strains. We verified that citrus-infecting pathovars have, on average, 50% more TAs than other Xanthomonas spp. and no genome harbors classical toxins such as MqsR, RelB, and HicA. Only one TA system (PIN_VapC-FitB-like/SpoVT_AbrB) was conserved among the Xanthomonas genomes, suggesting adaptive aspects concerning its broad occurrence. We also detected a trend of toxin gene loss in this genus, while the antitoxin gene was preferably maintained. This study discovers the quantitative and qualitative differences among the type II TA systems present in Xanthomonas spp., especially concerning the citrus-infecting s...Continue Reading

References

Nov 22, 2001·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·S K ChristensenKenn Gerdes
Oct 9, 2002·Genome Research·Lewis Y GeerStephen H Bryant
Jun 6, 2003·Molecular Microbiology·Susanne K Christensen, Kenn Gerdes
Jan 22, 2004·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Vickery L ArcusEdward N Baker
May 3, 2005·Nature Reviews. Microbiology·Kenn GerdesAnders Løbner-Olesen
Apr 20, 2006·Journal of Bacteriology·Ilana Kolodkin-Gal, Hanna Engelberg-Kulka
Mar 21, 2007·Molecular Microbiology·Silvia SzekeresDean A Rowe-Magnus
May 15, 2007·Journal of Bacteriology·Dayle A DainesSarah Y Yuan
Aug 7, 2007·Genome Biology·Emeric W Sevin, Frédérique Barloy-Hubler
Apr 29, 2008·Journal of Bacteriology·Manuel Saavedra De BastLaurence Van Melderen
Mar 28, 2009·PLoS Genetics·Laurence Van Melderen, Manuel Saavedra De Bast
May 9, 2009·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Jennifer M Hurley, Nancy A Woychik
Jan 1, 2004·Molecular Plant Pathology·James H GrahamDiann S Achor
Aug 26, 2010·Bioinformatics·Nikos Darzentas
Oct 12, 2010·Nucleic Acids Research·Yucheng ShaoZixin Deng
Nov 3, 2010·Current Opinion in Microbiology·Laurence Van Melderen
Jun 21, 2011·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·Xiaoxue Wang, Thomas K Wood
Jul 27, 2011·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Etienne MaisonneuveKenn Gerdes
Aug 9, 2011·Journal of Molecular Medicine : Official Organ of the Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher Und Ärzte·Hannes Mutschler, Anton Meinhart
Aug 26, 2011·Phytopathology·Min Woo LeeDrake C Stenger
Oct 27, 2011·Environmental Microbiology·Ying HuThomas K Wood
Sep 22, 2012·Annual Review of Microbiology·Kenn Gerdes, Etienne Maisonneuve
Jan 18, 2013·BMC Bioinformatics·Jacques Oberto
Oct 8, 2013·Molecular Cell·Elsa GermainKenn Gerdes
Oct 22, 2013·Nature Chemical Biology·Daniel Castro-RoaNikolay Zenkin
Jan 18, 2014·Toxins·Nathalie Goeders, Laurence Van Melderen
Feb 8, 2014·The Biochemical Journal·Aaron ButtRichard W Titball
Sep 23, 2014·Current Opinion in Microbiology·Sathish Kumar, Hanna Engelberg-Kulka
Nov 22, 2014·Nucleic Acids Research·Aron Marchler-BauerStephen H Bryant
Dec 3, 2014·Trends in Microbiology·Mesrop AyrapetyanJames D Oliver
Jan 13, 2015·Journal of Food Protection·Randhir Singh, Xiuping Jiang
Jan 23, 2015·Cell Death & Disease·N AllocatiV De Laurenzi
Dec 15, 2015·MicrobiologyOpen·Júlia A P SumaresHenrique Ferreira

Citations

Feb 26, 2019·Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology·Kai XiaXinle Liang
Jun 15, 2020·Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology·Jun XuXinle Liang
Jul 11, 2017·Microbiology·Bhaskar Chandra Mohan Ramisetty, Ramachandran Sarojini Santhosh
Jun 12, 2018·Frontiers in Microbiology·Paula M M MartinsAlessandra A de Souza
May 20, 2017·Annual Review of Phytopathology·T Shidore, L R Triplett

Methods Mentioned

BETA
PCR
environmental stresses

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Spatio-Temporal Regulation of DNA Repair

DNA repair is a complex process regulated by several different classes of enzymes, including ligases, endonucleases, and polymerases. This feed focuses on the spatial and temporal regulation that accompanies DNA damage signaling and repair enzymes and processes.

Glut1 Deficiency

Glut1 deficiency, an autosomal dominant, genetic metabolic disorder associated with a deficiency of GLUT1, the protein that transports glucose across the blood brain barrier, is characterized by mental and motor developmental delays and infantile seizures. Follow the latest research on Glut1 deficiency with this feed.

Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy

Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathies are a group of inherited neurodegenerative disorders characterized clinically by loss of sensation and autonomic dysfunction. Here is the latest research on these neuropathies.

Separation Anxiety

Separation anxiety is a type of anxiety disorder that involves excessive distress and anxiety with separation. This may include separation from places or people to which they have a strong emotional connection with. It often affects children more than adults. Here is the latest research on separation anxiety.

Neural Activity: Imaging

Imaging of neural activity in vivo has developed rapidly recently with the advancement of fluorescence microscopy, including new applications using miniaturized microscopes (miniscopes). This feed follows the progress in this growing field.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.