Insights gained from this review are as follows: (1) Ultrasound is highly effective in early detection of fetal hemoglobin (Hb) Bart disease. (2) The most sensitive parameters in predicting Hb Bart anemia appear to be the cardiac diameter-to-thoracic diameter ratio, middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity, and placental thickness. (3) Several other ultrasound markers are helpful in increasing specificity, such as hepatosplenomegaly. (4) Hydrops fetalis is not a consequence of heart failure but rather of hypervolemia and high vascular permeability of fetuses, whereas heart failure is a very late consequence of a long-standing overworked heart. (5) Management guidelines for fetuses at risk of Hb Bart disease are proposed.
Ultrasonographic scanning of placental thickness and the prenatal diagnosis of homozygous alpha-thalassaemia 1 in the second trimester
Ultrasound measurement of placental thickness to detect pregnancies affected by homozygous alpha-thalassaemia-1
Prenatal ultrasonographic prediction of homozygous type 1 alpha-thalassemia at 12 to 13 weeks of gestation
Noninvasive diagnosis by Doppler ultrasonography of fetal anemia due to maternal red-cell alloimmunization. Collaborative Group for Doppler Assessment of the Blood Velocity in Anemic Fetuses
Ductus venosus Doppler study in fetuses with homozygous alpha-thalassemia-1 at 12 to 13 weeks of gestation
Quantitative polymerase chain reaction for the rapid prenatal diagnosis of homozygous alpha-thalassaemia (Hb Barts hydrops fetalis)
Serial sonographic findings of four fetuses with homozygous alpha-thalassemia-1 from 21 weeks onwards
Longitudinal measurement of peak systolic velocity in the fetal middle cerebral artery for monitoring pregnancies complicated by red cell alloimmunisation: a prospective multicentre trial with intention-to-treat
Homozygous alpha-thalassemia treated with intrauterine transfusions and postnatal hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
Vascular-type disruptive defects in fetuses with homozygous alpha-thalassemia: report of two cases and review of the literature
Identification of fetuses with hemoglobin Bart's disease using middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity
Transfusion medicine illustrated: Intrauterine transfusion for homozygous alpha(0) thalassemia reverses hydrops fetalis
Ultrasonographic prediction of homozygous alpha0-thalassemia using placental thickness, fetal cardiothoracic ratio and middle cerebral artery Doppler: alone or in combination?
Fetal liver length measurement at mid-pregnancy among fetuses at risk as a predictor of hemoglobin Bart's disease
Splenic circumference at midpregnancy as a predictor of hemoglobin Bart's disease among fetuses at risk
Fetal cardiac ventricular volume, cardiac output, and ejection fraction determined with 4-dimensional ultrasound using spatiotemporal image correlation and virtual organ computer-aided analysis
Fetal cardiac circumference derived by spatiotemporal image correlation as a predictor of fetal hemoglobin Bart disease at midpregnancy
Prenatal ultrasound evaluation of fetal Hb Bart's disease among pregnancies at risk at 11 to 14 weeks of gestation
Screening for hemoglobin Bart's disease among fetuses at risk at mid-pregnancy using the fetal cardiac diameter to biparietal diameter ratio
Treatment of alpha(0)-thalassemia (--(SEA)/--(SEA)) via serial fetal and post-natal transfusions: Can early fetal intervention improve outcomes?
Fetal septum primum excursion (SPE) and septum primum excursion index (SPEI) as sonomarkers of fetal anemia: using hemoglobin Bart's fetuses as a study model
A Pilot Study of Noninvasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Alpha- and Beta-Thalassemia with Target Capture Sequencing of Cell-Free Fetal DNA in Maternal Blood
Appearance of Abnormal Cardiothoracic Ratio of Fetuses with Hemoglobin Bart's Disease: Life Table Analysis
Fetal isovolumetric time intervals as a marker of abnormal cardiac function in fetal anemia from homozygous alpha thalassemia-1 disease
The performance of cardio-biparietal ratio measured by 2D ultrasound in predicting fetal hemoglobin Bart disease during midpregnancy: A pilot study
Anemia develops when your blood lacks enough healthy red blood cells. Anemia of inflammation (AI, also called anemia of chronic disease) is a common, typically normocytic, normochromic anemia that is caused by an underlying inflammatory disease. Here is the latest research on anemia.