Microtubules switch between growing and shrinking states, a feature known as dynamic instability. The biochemical parameters underlying dynamic instability are modulated by a wide variety of microtubule-associated proteins that enable the strict control of microtubule dynamics in cells. The forces generated by controlled growth and shrinkage of microtubules drive a large range of processes, including organelle positioning, mitotic spindle assembly, and chromosome segregation. In the past decade, our understanding of microtubule dynamics and microtubule force generation has progressed significantly. Here, we review the microtubule-intrinsic process of dynamic instability, the effect of external factors on this process, and how the resulting forces act on various biological systems. Recently, reconstitution-based approaches have strongly benefited from extensive biochemical and biophysical characterization of individual components that are involved in regulating or transmitting microtubule-driven forces. We will focus on the current state of reconstituting increasingly complex biological systems and provide new directions for future developments.
Release of tyrosine from tyrosinated tubulin. Some common factors that affect this process and the assembly of tubulin
Control of microtubule dynamics and length by cyclin A- and cyclin B-dependent kinases in Xenopus egg extracts
Role of GTP hydrolysis in microtubule dynamics: information from a slowly hydrolyzable analogue, GMPCPP
Chromosome motion during attachment to the vertebrate spindle: initial saltatory-like behavior of chromosomes and quantitative analysis of force production by nascent kinetochore fibers
Dilution of individual microtubules observed in real time in vitro: evidence that cap size is small and independent of elongation rate
Dynamic instability of individual microtubules analyzed by video light microscopy: rate constants and transition frequencies
Microtubule elongation and guanosine 5'-triphosphate hydrolysis. Role of guanine nucleotides in microtubule dynamics
erythro-9-[3-(2-Hydroxynonyl)]adenine is an inhibitor of sperm motility that blocks dynein ATPase and protein carboxylmethylase activities
Inhibition of spindle elongation in permeabilized mitotic cells by erythro-9-[3-(2-hydroxynonyl)] adenine
Membrane/microtubule tip attachment complexes (TACs) allow the assembly dynamics of plus ends to push and pull membranes into tubulovesicular networks in interphase Xenopus egg extracts
Buckling of a single microtubule by optical trapping forces: direct measurement of microtubule rigidity
Evidence that a single monolayer tubulin-GTP cap is both necessary and sufficient to stabilize microtubules
Microtubule dynamics at the G2/M transition: abrupt breakdown of cytoplasmic microtubules at nuclear envelope breakdown and implications for spindle morphogenesis
Microtubules orient the mitotic spindle in yeast through dynein-dependent interactions with the cell cortex
Mal3, the fission yeast homologue of the human APC-interacting protein EB-1 is required for microtubule integrity and the maintenance of cell form
Structural changes at microtubule ends accompanying GTP hydrolysis: information from a slowly hydrolyzable analogue of GTP, guanylyl (alpha,beta)methylenediphosphonate
Endoplasmic reticulum membrane tubules are distributed by microtubules in living cells using three distinct mechanisms
Fluorescent speckle microscopy, a method to visualize the dynamics of protein assemblies in living cells
Microtubule actin cross-linking factor (MACF): a hybrid of dystonin and dystrophin that can interact with the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons
Microtubule-dependent nuclear positioning and nuclear-dependent septum positioning in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces [correction of Saccharomyces] pombe
Cdc42, dynein, and dynactin regulate MTOC reorientation independent of Rho-regulated microtubule stabilization
Dynamic behavior of microtubules during dynein-dependent nuclear migrations of meiotic prophase in fission yeast
A functional relationship between NuMA and kid is involved in both spindle organization and chromosome alignment in vertebrate cells
Mitochondrial positioning in fission yeast is driven by association with dynamic microtubules and mitotic spindle poles
Mutations of tubulin glycylation sites reveal cross-talk between the C termini of alpha- and beta-tubulin and affect the ciliary matrix in Tetrahymena
Tubulin tyrosination is a major factor affecting the recruitment of CAP-Gly proteins at microtubule plus ends
Microtubule organization in three-dimensional confined geometries: evaluating the role of elasticity through a combined in vitro and modeling approach
Crosslinkers and motors organize dynamic microtubules to form stable bipolar arrays in fission yeast
Tension applied through the Dam1 complex promotes microtubule elongation providing a direct mechanism for length control in mitosis
Quantitative analysis of an anaphase B switch: predicted role for a microtubule catastrophe gradient
Architecture of the Dam1 kinetochore ring complex and implications for microtubule-driven assembly and force-coupling mechanisms
Coupling of cortical dynein and G alpha proteins mediates spindle positioning in Caenorhabditis elegans
The Dam1 ring binds microtubules strongly enough to be a processive as well as energy-efficient coupler for chromosome motion
Detection of GTP-tubulin conformation in vivo reveals a role for GTP remnants in microtubule rescues
The Ndc80 kinetochore complex forms load-bearing attachments to dynamic microtubule tips via biased diffusion
Force- and kinesin-8-dependent effects in the spatial regulation of fission yeast microtubule dynamics
Cooperation of the Dam1 and Ndc80 kinetochore complexes enhances microtubule coupling and is regulated by aurora B
GTPgammaS microtubules mimic the growing microtubule end structure recognized by end-binding proteins (EBs)
Drosophila katanin is a microtubule depolymerase that regulates cortical-microtubule plus-end interactions and cell migration
Insights into EB1 structure and the role of its C-terminal domain for discriminating microtubule tips from the lattice
Depolymerizing kinesins Kip3 and MCAK shape cellular microtubule architecture by differential control of catastrophe
Cortical dynein controls microtubule dynamics to generate pulling forces that position microtubule asters
Growth, interaction, and positioning of microtubule asters in extremely large vertebrate embryo cells
End-on microtubule-dynein interactions and pulling-based positioning of microtubule organizing centers
A TOG:αβ-tubulin complex structure reveals conformation-based mechanisms for a microtubule polymerase
The kinetochore-bound Ska1 complex tracks depolymerizing microtubules and binds to curved protofilaments
Cell cycle-regulated membrane binding of NuMA contributes to efficient anaphase chromosome separation
High-resolution microtubule structures reveal the structural transitions in αβ-tubulin upon GTP hydrolysis
Microtubule Plus End Dynamics - Do We Know How Microtubules Grow?: Cells boost microtubule growth by promoting distinct structural transitions at growing microtubule ends
Microtubules pull the strings: disordered sequences as efficient couplers of microtubule-generated force
The Generation of Dynein Networks by Multi-Layered Regulation and Their Implication in Cell Division
Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.
Synthetic Genetic Array Analysis
Synthetic genetic arrays allow the systematic examination of genetic interactions. Here is the latest research focusing on synthetic genetic arrays and their analyses.
Neural Activity: Imaging
Imaging of neural activity in vivo has developed rapidly recently with the advancement of fluorescence microscopy, including new applications using miniaturized microscopes (miniscopes). This feed follows the progress in this growing field.
Computational Methods for Protein Structures
Computational methods employing machine learning algorithms are powerful tools that can be used to predict the effect of mutations on protein structure. This is important in neurodegenerative disorders, where some mutations can cause the formation of toxic protein aggregations. This feed follows the latests insights into the relationships between mutation and protein structure leading to better understanding of disease.
Congenital hyperinsulinism is caused by genetic mutations resulting in excess insulin secretion from beta cells of the pancreas. Here is the latest research.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.
Epigenetic memory refers to the heritable genetic changes that are not explained by the DNA sequence. Find the latest research on epigenetic memory here.
Cell Atlas of the Human Eye
Constructing a cell atlas of the human eye will require transcriptomic and histologic analysis over the lifespan. This understanding will aid in the study of development and disease. Find the latest research pertaining to the Cell Atlas of the Human Eye here.
Femoral Neoplasms are bone tumors that arise in the femur. Discover the latest research on femoral neoplasms here.