Jun 1, 1976

Urinary excretion of probenecid and its metabolites in humans as a function of dose

Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
S Melethil, W D Conway


A GLC assay was used to study the excretion of probenecid and its metabolites in the urine of human subjects following oral doses of 0.5, 1, and 2 g. From 75 to 88% of the dose was found in the urine. The major metabolite, probenecid acyl glucuronide, accounted for 34-47% of the dose. Approximately equal amounts (10-15%) of the mono-N-propyl, secondary alcohol, and carboxylic acid metabolites were excreted in the unconjugated from with only traces in the conjugated form. The primary alcohol metabolite was not found in measurable amounts. The terminal half-lives for excretion of all metabolites were in the range of 4-6 hr, were independent of dose, and were limited by their rates of formation. A prolonged time course of excretion of the metabolites, particularly at higher doses, suggests that probenecid, being poorly soluble in water, precipitates from solution in the GI tract, forming a depot of drug from which absorption is dissolution rate limited. The urinary excretion of unchanged probenecid, which accounts for 4-13% of the dose, is dependent on both the pH and flow rate of urine.

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Mentioned in this Paper

Body Excretions
Excretory Function
Urine - SpecimenType
Gastrointestinal Tract Structure

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