Urinary Growth Differentiation Factor-15 (GDF15) levels as a biomarker of adverse outcomes and biopsy findings in chronic kidney disease.

Journal of Nephrology
Maria Vanessa Perez-GomezAlberto Ortiz


Growth Differentiation Factor-15 (GDF15) is a member of the TGF-β superfamily. Increased serum GDF15 has been associated with increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression. However, no prior studies have addressed the significance of urinary GDF15 in adult CKD. We measured serum and urinary GDF15 in a prospective cohort of 84 patients who underwent kidney biopsy and assessed their association with outcomes (survival, kidney replacement therapy) during a follow-up of 29 ± 17 months. There was a statistically significant correlation between serum and urine GDF15 values. However, while serum GDF15 values increased with decreasing glomerular filtration rate, urinary GDF15 did not. Immunohistochemistry located kidney GDF15 expression mainly in tubular cells, and kidney GDF15 staining correlated with urinary GDF15 values. Urine GDF15 was significantly higher in patients with a histologic diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy than in diabetic patients without diabetic nephropathy. This was not the case for serum GDF15. Both serum and urine GDF15 were negatively associated with patient survival in multivariate models. However, when both urine and serum GDF15 were present in the model, lower urine GDF15 predicted patient surviv...Continue Reading


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