PMID: 7800865Oct 1, 1994Paper

Use of biological markers in risk assessment

Risk Analysis : an Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
A McMillanY DiCiccio


Measurements of intermediate end points in the carcinogenic process may reduce uncertainty in human risk assessment from bioassay data, by identifying sources of interspecies variation and dose nonlinearity. This paper describes desirable properties of such markers: persistence, predictive power, temporal relevance, and consistency across dose rate and species. We illustrate these properties by evaluating markers for squamous cell nasal carcinoma in rodents exposed to formaldehyde. We also discuss design issues for bioassays that evaluate markers and tumors simultaneously at necropsy.


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