Uses of Next-Generation Sequencing Technologies for the Diagnosis of Primary Immunodeficiencies

Frontiers in Immunology
Michael SelemanJanet Chou

Abstract

Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are genetic disorders impairing host immunity, leading to life-threatening infections, autoimmunity, and/or malignancies. Genomic technologies have been critical for expediting the discovery of novel genetic defects underlying PIDs, expanding our knowledge of the complex clinical phenotypes associated with PIDs, and in shifting paradigms of PID pathogenesis. Once considered Mendelian, monogenic, and completely penetrant disorders, genomic studies have redefined PIDs as a heterogeneous group of diseases found in the global population that may arise through multigenic defects, non-germline transmission, and with variable penetrance. This review examines the uses of next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) in the diagnosis of PIDs. While whole genome sequencing identifies variants throughout the genome, whole exome sequencing sequences only the protein-coding regions within a genome, and targeted gene panels sequence only a specific cohort of genes. The advantages and limitations of each sequencing approach are compared. The complexities of variant interpretation and variant validation remain the major challenge in wide-spread implementation of these technologies. Lastly, the roles of NGS in newborn s...Continue Reading

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Methods Mentioned

BETA
exome sequencing
targeted gene panel
PCR
flow cytometry

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