May 24, 2020

Vaccine-Induced Adverse Effects in Cultured Neuroblastoma 2A (N2A) Cells Duplicate Toxicity of Serum from Patients with Gulf War Illness (GWI) and Are Prevented in the Presence of Specific Anti-Vaccine Antibodies

Effie-Photini C TsilibaryApostolos P Georgopoulos


Gulf War illness (GWI) is a chronic disease of unknown etiology affecting over 200,000 veterans with symptoms including neurocognitive problems. We previously demonstrated GWI serum toxicity on neural cell cultures manifested by compromised neural network function, decreased cell spreading, and enhanced cell apoptosis. These patients lacked six human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles, resulting in an inability to form antibodies. Therefore, we hypothesized that GWI patients have vaccine-derived, persistent pathogens, which contribute to the development of the disease. Here, we examined whether individual vaccines were toxic in cultured N2A cells. Moreover, we used antibodies against each of the 20 vaccines administered to Gulf War (GW) veterans, to examine the effects of these antibodies on cell spreading and apoptosis in N2A cells. Antibodies against cholera toxin, hepatitis B, hemagglutinin H1N1, H3N2, and B from influenza A and B strains, measles, and Salmonella Typhi polysaccharide Vi had a remarkable protective effect on both cell spreading and apoptosis, whereas none of the other antibodies administered to GW veterans had an effect. The in vitro observed adverse effects of GWI serum may be due in part to vaccine-de...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Illness (Finding)
Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype
Cholera Toxin
H1N1 virus hemagglutinin
Spread of Virus in Host, Cell to Cell
Adverse Effects
Salmonella typhi

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Apoptosis is a specific process that leads to programmed cell death through the activation of an evolutionary conserved intracellular pathway leading to pathognomic cellular changes distinct from cellular necrosis