Vaginal bleeding patterns of women using different contraceptive methods (implants, injectables, IUDs, oral pills)--an Indian experience. An ICMR Task Force Study. Indian Council of Medical Research

Contraception
S DateyB N Saxena

Abstract

Irregularity in vaginal bleeding patterns is the most common clinical side effect causing discontinuation of the method reported by the-users of the newer contraceptive methods, especially hormonal ones. An objective assessment of vaginal bleeding pattern is, therefore, critical in evaluation of a new contraceptive method for its acceptance and continued use. The menstrual diary records of women participating in clinical trials of several contraceptive methods undertaken by the Indian Council of Medical Research were analysed. It was observed that the long-acting progestogen-only hormonal contraceptives like levonorgestrel (LNG)-releasing subdermal implants Norplant or intrauterine devices (LNG-IUD) as well as injectable contraceptive NET-EN 200mg given 2 or 3 monthly produced disturbances in bleeding pattern in the majority of their users. Very heavy or prolonged bleeding, a potential health hazard was uncommon and a shift more towards infrequent bleeding was observed. In Norplant-II implants users, 75 to 80% of women had irregularities in bleeding pattern during the first year of use which improved with prolonged use. However, even at 4 years of use, about half of the users of Norplant-II implants continued to have irregular ...Continue Reading

References

Feb 11, 1991·Obstetrics and Gynecology·D ShoupeM Fielding
Mar 1, 1983·British Journal of Sports Medicine·P Bale, J Davies

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Citations

Jan 10, 2002·Journal of Biosciences·R S SharmaD A Jeyaraj
Jun 1, 2002·Obstetrics and Gynecology·Tiina BackmanMarkku Koskenvuo
Jul 15, 2009·Journal de gynécologie, obstétrique et biologie de la reproduction·Anne Gompel
Nov 6, 2007·Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology·Camaryn ChrismanVanessa K Dalton
Mar 31, 2000·BJOG : an International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology·T BackmanM Koskenvuo
Apr 1, 2005·The European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care : the Official Journal of the European Society of Contraception·S Salhan, V Tripathi
Mar 26, 2003·Drug Safety : an International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience·Irving Sivin
Mar 13, 2010·International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics : the Official Organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics·Suman LalNutan Agarwal
Mar 17, 2010·The European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care : the Official Journal of the European Society of Contraception·Irving Sivin, István Batár
Dec 9, 2010·The European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care : the Official Journal of the European Society of Contraception·Catherine d'ArcanguesUNKNOWN Study Group on Progestogen-induced Vaginal Bleeding Disturbances
May 16, 2014·Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology·Simona Palm-Fischbacher, Ulrike Ehlert
Jul 24, 2010·International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics : the Official Organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics·Marcos ArévaloLuis Bahamondes
Nov 10, 2004·The European Journal of General Practice·H M VeldhuisA L M Lagro-Janssen
Mar 6, 2007·Human Reproduction Update·UNKNOWN ESHRE Capri Workshop GroupP G Crosignani
Oct 10, 2008·The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews·Maria F GalloCatherine d'Arcangues
Dec 14, 2004·Drug Safety : an International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience·Tiina Backman
Nov 11, 2011·The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews·Huib A A M Van VlietFrans M Helmerhorst
Nov 16, 2013·Cadernos de saúde pública·Raquel Siqueira BarcelosIná da Silva Dos Santos

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathy

Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathies are a group of inherited neurodegenerative disorders characterized clinically by loss of sensation and autonomic dysfunction. Here is the latest research on these neuropathies.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Landau-Kleffner Syndrome

Landau Kleffner syndrome (LKS), also called infantile acquired aphasia, acquired epileptic aphasia, or aphasia with convulsive disorder, is a rare childhood neurological syndrome characterized by the sudden or gradual development of aphasia (the inability to understand or express language) and an abnormal electroencephalogram. Discover the latest research on LKS here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

Microbicide

Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.

Regulation of Vocal-Motor Plasticity

Dopaminergic projections to the basal ganglia and nucleus accumbens shape the learning and plasticity of motivated behaviors across species including the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity and performance in songbirds. Discover the latest research on the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity here.