Vancomycin: a review of population pharmacokinetic analyses

Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Amélie MarsotN Simon

Abstract

Despite nearly five decades of clinical use, vancomycin has retained a significant and uncontested niche in the antibacterial arsenal because of its consistent activity against almost all Gram-positive bacteria. Nevertheless, major vancomycin toxicities have been reported in the literature - in particular, nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. Vancomycin pharmacokinetics have been described in numerous studies for 25 years. This review presents a synthesis of the reported population pharmacokinetic models of vancomycin. The objective was to determine if there was a consensus on a structural model and which covariates were identified. A literature search was conducted from the PubMed database, from its inception through December 2010, using the following terms: 'vancomycin', 'pharmacokinetic(s)', 'population', 'model(ling)' and 'nonlinear mixed effect'. Articles were excluded if they were not pertinent. The reference lists of all selected articles were also evaluated. Twenty-five articles were included in this review: 15 models concerned paediatric patients and ten models were conducted in adults. In neonates and infants, the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin were mainly described by a one-compartment model, whereas in adults, a two-comp...Continue Reading

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