Variation in rural African gut microbiota is strongly correlated with colonization by Entamoeba and subsistence

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
Elise R MortonLaure Segurel

Abstract

The human gut microbiota is impacted by host nutrition and health status and therefore represents a potentially adaptive phenotype influenced by metabolic and immune constraints. Previous studies contrasting rural populations in developing countries to urban industrialized ones have shown that industrialization is strongly correlated with patterns in human gut microbiota; however, we know little about the relative contribution of factors such as climate, diet, medicine, hygiene practices, host genetics, and parasitism. Here, we focus on fine-scale comparisons of African rural populations in order to (i) contrast the gut microbiota of populations inhabiting similar environments but having different traditional subsistence modes and either shared or distinct genetic ancestry, and (ii) examine the relationship between gut parasites and bacterial communities. Characterizing the fecal microbiota of Pygmy hunter-gatherers as well as Bantu individuals from both farming and fishing populations in Southwest Cameroon, we found that the gut parasite Entamoeba is significantly correlated with microbiome composition and diversity. We show that across populations, colonization by this protozoa can be predicted with 79% accuracy based on the ...Continue Reading

Related Concepts

Autoimmune Diseases
Diet
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Entamoeba
Environment
Parasites
Parasitic Diseases
Protozoa
Zebrafish
Rural Communities

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