May 24, 2011

Vascular inflammation in cerebral small vessel disease

Neurobiology of Aging
Rob P W RouhlRobert J van Oostenbrugge

Abstract

Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is considered to be caused by an increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier and results in enlargement of Virchow Robin spaces (VRs), white matter lesions, brain microbleeds, and lacunar infarcts. The increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier may relate to endothelial cell activation and activated monocytes/macrophages. Therefore, we hypothesized that plasma markers of endothelial activation (adhesion molecules) and monocyte/macrophage activation (neopterin) relate to CSVD manifestations. In 163 first-ever lacunar stroke patients and 183 essential hypertensive patients, we assessed CSVD manifestations on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), neopterin, as well as circulating soluble adhesion molecules (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin, sP-selectin). Neopterin, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 levels were higher in patients with extensive CSVD manifestations than in those without (p < 0.01). Neopterin levels independently related to higher numbers of enlarged Virchow Robin spaces (p < 0.001). An inflammatory process with activated monocytes/macrophages may play a role in the increased permeability of the blood brain barrier in patients with CSVD.

  • References37
  • Citations81

References

Mentioned in this Paper

Vasculitis
Microvascular Network
Blood - Brain Barrier Anatomy
Vascular Inflammations
T-Lymphocyte
C-reactive Protein Measurement
Collection of Blood Specimen for Laboratory Procedure
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Malignant Disease
Coronary Artery Disease

Related Feeds

Cell Adhesion Molecules in AS

Cell adhesion molecules expressed on the vascular endothelium and circulating leukocytes in response to inflammatory stimuli are implicated in atherosclerosis. Here is the latest research.

Brain Aging

Here is the latest research on intrinsic and extrinsic factors, as well as pathways and mechanisms that underlie aging in the central nervous system.

Blood Brain Barrier

The blood brain barrier is a border that separates blood from cerebrospinal fluid. Discover the latest search on this highly selective semipermeable membrane here.

Basal Ganglia

Basal Ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei in the brain associated with control of voluntary motor movements, procedural and habit learning, emotion, and cognition. Here is the latest research.

Adhesion Molecules in Health and Disease

Cell adhesion molecules are a subset of cell adhesion proteins located on the cell surface involved in binding with other cells or with the extracellular matrix in the process called cell adhesion. In essence, cell adhesion molecules help cells stick to each other and to their surroundings. Cell adhesion is a crucial component in maintaining tissue structure and function. Discover the latest research on adhesion molecule and their role in health and disease here.

Blood Brain Barrier & Cytokines

Cytokines can affect the central nervous system through crossing the blood brain barrier and entering the CSF and interstitial fluid spaces. Some cytokines are able to cross through transport systems and can affect tissues within the CNS, whereas others are unable to cross. Here is the latest research on the blood brain barrier and cytokines.

Blood Brain Barrier Chips

The blood brain barrier (BBB) is comprised of endothelial cells that regulate the influx and outflux of plasma concentrations. Lab-on-a-chip devices allow scientists to model diseases and mechanisms such as the passage of therapeutic antibodies across the BBB. Discover the latest research on BBB chips here.