Vector Analysis of Cytoskeletal Structural Tension and the Mechanisms that Underpin Spectrin-Related Forces in Pyroptosis

Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Tingting ChenXiaoguang Margaret Liu

Abstract

Aims: Pyroptotic cells are characterized by plasma swelling, membrane blebbing, and disintegration of the cell membrane mediated by spectrin-based membrane skeleton and intercellular competitive tension activities. The spectrin-based membrane skeleton is involved in membrane organization through the regulation of intercellular tension. Using genetically encoded tension sensors to attain noninvasive force measurements in structural proteins, we investigated how cytoskeletal structural tension influences changes in plasma morphology during pyroptosis and the regulatory mechanism of cytoskeletal structural tension that underpins pyroptosis. Results: The results indicate that increasing spectrin tension is caused by osmotic swelling. Hightened tension of spectrin was closely associated with the shrink tension transmitted synergistically by microfilaments (MFs) and microtubules (MTs). However, the increment of spectrin tension in pyroptotic cells was controlled antagonistically by MF and MT forces. Different from MF tension, outward MT forces participated in the formation of membrane blebs. Spectrin tension caused by inward MF forces resisted pyroptosis swelling. Stabilization of MF and MT structure had little influence on intrac...Continue Reading

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Methods Mentioned

BETA
confocal microscopy
FRET
xenograft
transfection
PCR
electrophoresis
X-ray
flow cytometry

Software Mentioned

ImageJ
Pro Plus
Image
Summit

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