Different types of malformations share a dilated vein of Galen, but only one of them is a true vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation (VGAM). The optimal window of opportunity for treatment is between 4 and 5 years of months [corrected], because this allows the child to grow and mature. Heart failure and hydrocephalus respond favorably to embolization. Cerebrospinal fluid ventricular shunting, if needed, should be performed after the embolization. The transvenous approach carries significantly elevated morbidity and mortality and is rarely indicated. Anatomic cure of the VGAM is not the main goal of treatment; the ultimate goal is control of the malformation to allow the brain to mature and develop normally.
Aneurysms of the vein of Galen: embryonic considerations and anatomical features relating to the pathogenesis of the malformation
Disseminated coagulopathy associated with transtorcular embolization of vein of Galen aneurysm in a neonate
Enigma of raised intracranial pressure in patients with complex craniosynostosis: the role of abnormal intracranial venous drainage
Severe cardiac failure in newborns with VGAM. Prognosis significance of hemodynamic parameters in neonates presenting with severe heart failure owing to vein of Galen arteriovenous malformation
Arteriovenous fistula (aneurysm) of the great cerebral vein (of Galen) and the circle of Willis; report on two patients treated by ligation
Predicting factors for the follow-up outcome and management decisions in vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations.
Endovascular management of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations. Influence of the normal venous drainage on the choice of a treatment strategy.
Hydrocephalus in unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations: pathomechanical considerations, therapeutic implications, and clinical course
Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations: critical analysis of the literature with proposal of a new classification system
Is jugular bulb stenosis in vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation associated with bony remodeling of the jugular foramina?
Outcome and complications of endovascular embolization for vein of Galen malformations: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Fetal MRI demonstrating vein of Galen malformations in two successive pregnancies--a previously unreported occurrence
Pediatric knowledge update: Approach to the management of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations in neonates
Vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation-clinical and angiographic spectrum with management perspective: an institutional experience
Hydrocephalus in a patient with an unruptured pial arteriovenous fistula: hydrodynamic considerations, endovascular treatment, and clinical course
The natural progression of VGAMs and the need for urgent medical attention: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Dural arteriovenous shunts: a new classification of craniospinal epidural venous anatomical bases and clinical correlations
Fetal and Neonatal MRI Predictors of Aggressive Early Clinical Course in Vein of Galen Malformation.
Hydrocephalus secondary to hydrodynamic disequilibrium in an adult patient with a choroidal-type arteriovenous malformation.
Decreased Superior Sagittal Sinus Diameter and Jugular Bulb Narrowing Are Associated with Poor Clinical Outcome in Vein of Galen Arteriovenous Malformation.
Trans-cranial placement of an amplatzer device to control intractable cardiac failure in an infant with a vein of galen anomaly. A case report.
Superselective transvenous embolization with Onyx and n-BCA for vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations with restricted transarterial access: safety, efficacy, and technical aspects
Adjuvant Coil Assisted Glue Embolization of Vein of Galen Aneurysmal Malformation in Pediatric Patients
Galenic pial arteriovenous fistulas: Angioarchitecture, clinical presentation, and therapeutic considerations
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