PMID: 12877695Jul 25, 2003

Venous occlusion of the access vein in patients referred for lead extraction: influence of patient and lead characteristics

Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology : PACE
F BrackeB van Gelder

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of patient and lead characteristics on occlusion of the access vein in pacemaker and ICD patients. Contrast venography of the access vein was obtained in 89 patients (17 patients with an ICD) scheduled for lead extraction. The indication for extraction was infection in 57 patients (systemic infection in 9) and lead malfunction in 32 patients. In 6 of the 89 patients, leads were introduced in both the right and left subpectoral area, resulting in a total of 95 venous entry sites. In 22 of these entry sites one lead was present, in 61 two leads, in 11 three, and in 1 four leads. The vessel patency was graded open or occluded. Occlusion of the subclavian vein occurred in four (13%) patients with lead malfunction versus 18 (32%) patients with infection (P = 0.07). In patients with systemic infection, 5 of 9 showed venous occlusion (P = 0.01 when compared to patients with malfunction, odds ratio 8.75, 95% confidence interval 1.21-64.11). Considered per entry site, the incidence of occlusion was 7 of 22 with one lead present, 17 of 61 with two leads, 0 of 11 with three leads, and 0 of 1 with four leads (P = 0.13). No patient had a superior vena caval occlusion. Patients with systemic ...Continue Reading

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Catheterization, Central Venous
Radiographic contrast media
Misuse, Equipment
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Venography - Procedure
Structure of Subclavian Vein
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Structure of Brachiocephalic Vein
Implantable Defibrillator

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