Jun 23, 1999

Vertical transmission of HIV: parameters which might affect infection of placental trophoblasts by HIV-1: a review. Biomed Group on the Study of in Utero Transmission of HIV 1

American Journal of Reproductive Immunology : AJRI
M MoussaG Chaouat

Abstract

To understand the mechanisms preventing and/or facilitating maternofetal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 across the placenta during pregnancy. Current experimental data were reviewed. The data about the production of cytokines by placental cells and explants, taken together with information indicating selective passage of certain HIV-1 variants across the placental trophoblast, suggest an intricate regulatory network operating at the fetomaternal interface. The data show a differential differentiation of early and late trophoblasts, as far as HIV entry routes are concerned. We believe this explains the relative predominance of the early infection window, as far as in utero infection is concerned. Whether such a differentiation state can be transiently induced on term placental trophoblasts by several differentiation agents, including cytokines, is being investigated. Whatever the results may be, it is obvious that infection of placental cells is an excellent model of passage infection by HIV of/through a mucosal barrier.

Mentioned in this Paper

Maternal-Fetal Infection Transmission
Syncytiotrophoblasts
HIV Infections
Chemokine
HIV-1

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.

IGA Glomerulonephritis

IgA glomerulonephritis is a chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly Iimmunoglobin A in the mesangial area. Discover the latest research on IgA glomerulonephritis here.

Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) allows the determination of biological macromolecules and their assemblies at a near-atomic resolution. Here is the latest research.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

LRRK2 & Immunity During Infection

Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are a risk-factor for developing Parkinson’s disease. However, LRRK2 has been shown to function as a central regulator of vesicular trafficking, infection, immunity, and inflammation. Here is the latest research on the role of this kinase on immunity during infection.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by the presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids.

Meningococcal Myelitis

Meningococcal myelitis is characterized by inflammation and myelin damage to the meninges and spinal cord. Discover the latest research on meningococcal myelitis here.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease by recent genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research.