Vibrio cholerae flagellins induce Toll-like receptor 5-mediated interleukin-8 production through mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-kappaB activation

Infection and Immunity
Lisa M HarrisonJames B Kaper


Vaccine reactogenicity has complicated the development of safe and effective live, oral cholera vaccines. Delta ctx Vibrio cholerae mutants have been shown to induce inflammatory diarrhea in volunteers and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in cultured intestinal epithelial cells. Bacterial flagellins are known to induce IL-8 production through Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5). Since the V. cholerae genome encodes five distinct flagellin proteins, FlaA to FlaE, with homology to conserved TLR5 recognition regions of Salmonella FliC, we hypothesized that V. cholerae flagellins may contribute to IL-8 induction through TLR5 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Each purified recombinant V. cholerae flagellin induced IL-8 production in T84 intestinal epithelial cells and also induced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation in HEK293T/TLR5 transfectants, which was blocked by cotransfection with a TLR5 dominant-negative construct, demonstrating TLR5 specificity. Supernatants derived from Delta flaAC and Delta flaEDB mutants induced IL-8 production in HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells and in HEK293T cells overexpressing TLR5, whereas Delta flaABCDE supernatants induced significantly less IL-8 production, demonstrating th...Continue Reading


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