Vitamin D3 is made in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol under the influence of UV light. Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) is derived from the plant sterol ergosterol. Vitamin D is metabolized first to 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), then to the hormonal form 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D). CYP2R1 is the most important 25-hydroxylase; CYP27B1 is the key 1-hydroxylase. Both 25OHD and 1,25(OH)2D are catabolized by CYP24A1. 1,25(OH)2D is the ligand for the vitamin D receptor (VDR), a transcription factor, binding to sites in the DNA called vitamin D response elements (VDREs). There are thousands of these binding sites regulating hundreds of genes in a cell-specific fashion. VDR-regulated transcription is dependent on comodulators, the profile of which is also cell specific. Analogs of 1,25(OH)2D are being developed to target specific diseases with minimal side effects. This review will examine these different aspects of vitamin D metabolism, mechanism of action, and clinical application.
The ionic control of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 synthesis in isolated chick renal mitochondria. The role of calcium as influenced by inorganic phosphate and hydrogen-ion
Sequences in the human parathyroid hormone gene that bind the 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor and mediate transcriptional repression in response to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces vitamin D-1-hydroxylase activity in normal human alveolar macrophages
Characterization of 1 alpha-hydroxylation of vitamin D3 sterols by cultured alveolar macrophages from patients with sarcoidosis
Comparison of equilibrium and disequilibrium assay conditions for ergocalciferol, cholecalciferol and their major metabolites
In vitro stimulation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol 1 alpha-hydroxylation by parathyroid hormone in chick kidney slices: evidence for a role for adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate
In vitro action of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on matrix organization and mineral distribution in rabbit growth plate
A new analog of calcitriol, 19-nor-1,25-(OH)2D2, suppresses parathyroid hormone secretion in uremic rats in the absence of hypercalcemia
Two vitamin D response elements function in the rat 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 24-hydroxylase promoter.
Increased biological potency of hexafluorinated analogs of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on bovine parathyroid cells
Metabolism of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and its C-3 epimer 1alpha,25-dihydroxy-3-epi-vitamin D(3) in neonatal human keratinocytes
2-Methylene-19-nor-(20S)-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 potently stimulates gene-specific DNA binding of the vitamin D receptor in osteoblasts
Inhibition of prostate cell growth by BXL-628, a calcitriol analogue selected for a phase II clinical trial in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia
Ribozyme knockdown functionally links a 1,25(OH)2D3 membrane binding protein (1,25D3-MARRS) and phosphate uptake in intestinal cells
Alternative splicing of vitamin D-24-hydroxylase: a novel mechanism for the regulation of extrarenal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D synthesis
Prevalence and associations of vitamin D deficiency in foreign-born persons with tuberculosis in London
Human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) gene is a direct target of the vitamin D receptor and is strongly up-regulated in myeloid cells by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3
Dietary and serum phosphorus regulate fibroblast growth factor 23 expression and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D metabolism in mice
Identification and characterization of noncalcemic, tissue-selective, nonsecosteroidal vitamin D receptor modulators
Inhibition of prostate growth and inflammation by the vitamin D receptor agonist BXL-628 (elocalcitol)
ED-71, a new active vitamin D3, increases bone mineral density regardless of serum 25(OH)D levels in osteoporotic subjects
Prevention of nonvertebral fractures with oral vitamin D and dose dependency: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
The vitamin D sterol-vitamin D receptor ensemble model offers unique insights into both genomic and rapid-response signaling
Genome-wide analysis of the VDR/RXR cistrome in osteoblast cells provides new mechanistic insight into the actions of the vitamin D hormone
Association of vitamin D with insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction in subjects at risk for type 2 diabetes
Chronic stress causes neuroendocrine-immune disturbances without affecting renal vitamin D metabolism in rats
Expression of Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) Positively Correlates with Survival of Urothelial Bladder Cancer Patients
Antiproliferative Activity of Double Point Modified Analogs of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D₂ Against Human Malignant Melanoma Cell Lines
Gender differences in the VDR-FokI polymorphism and conventional non-genetic risk factors in association with lumbar spine pathologies in an Italian case-control study
Impact of CYP24A1 overexpression on growth of colorectal tumour xenografts in mice fed with vitamin D and soy
A 2-year prospective densitometric study on the influence of Fok-I gene polymorphism in young patients with thalassaemia major
Associations between vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms and ankylosing spondylitis in Chinese Han population: a case-control study
Performance characteristics of the VIDAS® 25-OH Vitamin D Total assay - comparison with four immunoassays and two liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods in a multicentric study
Vitamin D3 pretreatment regulates renal inflammatory responses during lipopolysaccharide-induced acute kidney injury
Vitamin D-induced ectodomain shedding of TNF receptor 1 as a nongenomic action: D3 vs D2 derivatives
Vitamin D inhibits the growth of and virulence factor gene expression by Porphyromonas gingivalis and blocks activation of the nuclear factor kappa B transcription factor in monocytes
Extracts from Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) Edible Mushrooms Enriched with Vitamin D Exert an Anti-Inflammatory Hepatoprotective Effect
Vitamin D and pancreas: The role of sunshine vitamin in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and pancreatic cancer
Investigation of the effects of vitamin D and calcium on intestinal motility: In vitro tests and implications for clinical treatment
Vitamin D is significantly associated with total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in Malaysian men
Vitamin D in patients with chronic kidney disease: a position statement of the Working Group "Trace Elements and Mineral Metabolism" of the Italian Society of Nephrology
Maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and lactation to promote infant growth in Dhaka, Bangladesh (MDIG trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
Correlation between expression of 1 α -hydroxylase and hypocalcaemia in rats with severe pancreatitis
Modified-release oral calcifediol corrects vitamin D insufficiency with minimal CYP24A1 upregulation
L-cysteine supplementation upregulates glutathione (GSH) and vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) in hepatocytes cultured in high glucose and in vivo in liver, and increases blood levels of GSH, VDBP, and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D in Zucker diabetic fatty rats
Alleviating Redox Imbalance Enhances 7-Dehydrocholesterol Production in Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Plasma vitamin D levels and inflammation in the aortic wall of patients with coronary artery disease with and without inflammatory rheumatic disease
FGFR Inhibitor Ameliorates Hypophosphatemia and Impaired Engrailed-1/Wnt Signaling in FGF2 High Molecular Weight Isoform Transgenic Mice
Effect of exercise on serum vitamin D and tissue vitamin D receptors in experimentally induced type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Vitamin D is Not Associated With Severity in NAFLD: Results of a Paired Clinical and Gene Expression Profile Analysis
Vitamin D3 supplementation in healthy adults: a comparison between capsule and oral spray solution as a method of delivery in a wintertime, randomised, open-label, cross-over study
Effects of parathyroid hormone rhPTH(1-84) on phosphate homeostasis and vitamin D metabolism in hypoparathyroidism: REPLACE phase 3 study
Effects of Osteoporosis-Inducing Drugs on Vitamin D-Related Gene Transcription and Mineralization in MG-63 and Saos-2 Cells
On-line SPE sample treatment as a tool for method automatization and detection limits reduction: Quantification of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3/D2
Low vitamin D status is associated with advanced liver fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Induction of CFTR gene expression by 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3, 25OH vitamin D3, and vitamin D3 in cultured human airway epithelial cells and in mouse airways.
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