Vulvar Pilomatrix Carcinoma: Morphologic and Molecular Features.

International Journal of Gynecological Pathology : Official Journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
Diego BuenoBelén Pérez-Mies


Pilomatrix carcinoma (PC) is a rare malignant variant of pilomatrixoma, a skin adnexal tumor originating from hair matrix cells. It is most often located in the head, neck region, upper back and upper extremities. PC has a locally aggressive behavior but metastasis only occur in 10% of cases. Mutations in CTNNB1, the encoding gene of beta-catenin, have been found in both pilomatrixoma and PC, but other molecular alterations are unknown. The authors present a case of PC in the clitoris, the third known reported case located on the external genitalia. The tumor followed an unusual clinical course with the development of multiple metastases. Next-generation sequencing analysis of the tumor identified, in addition to a characteristic CTNNB1 mutation, pathogenic mutations in PTEN, PIK3CA, and ARID1A, which could explain the aggressive course of the disease. The diagnostic criteria of PC and the differential diagnoses of this unusual tumor in the genital area are discussed.


Apr 1, 1997·Journal of Cutaneous Pathology·S KadduH Kerl
Aug 17, 1999·European Journal of Cancer : Official Journal for European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) [and] European Association for Cancer Research (EACR)·R M BremnesE A Jacobsen
Jul 27, 2001·Pathology International·Y KajinoK Kikuchi
Jan 22, 2002·The American Journal of Dermatopathology·D HardissonF Contreras
Apr 30, 2002·The American Journal of Dermatopathology·Maria Victoria De Gálvez-ArandaAlfredo Matilla-Vicente
Mar 20, 2004·The British Journal of Dermatology·A M Hassanein, S M Glanz
Dec 21, 2004·Journal of Cutaneous Pathology·Alexander J F LazarPhillip H McKee
Dec 15, 2010·Journal of Skin Cancer·Emanuele CignaNicolò Scuderi
Mar 24, 2011·International Journal of Surgical Pathology·Barbara GazicJoze Pizem
Dec 12, 2012·The American Journal of Dermatopathology·Kristine M Cornejo, April Deng
Sep 3, 2013·Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine·Gabrielle M BakerMai P Hoang
Apr 18, 2014·Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology·Jennifer L HerrmannMichael B Morgan
Jan 16, 2015·Clinical Cancer Research : an Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research·Yvonne Y LiPeter S Hammerman
Mar 5, 2016·Gynecologic Oncology Reports·Mihae SongDarlene Gibbon
Apr 4, 2017·The American Journal of Surgical Pathology·Liubov KyrpychovaDmitry V Kazakov
Jun 18, 2019·The Journal of Investigative Dermatology·Audris ChiangKavita Y Sarin

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.


Blastomycosis fungal infections spread through inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis spores. Discover the latest research on blastomycosis fungal infections here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.


Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.