Windowless ultrasound photoacoustic cell for in vivo mid-IR spectroscopy of human epidermis: low interference by changes of air pressure, temperature, and humidity caused by skin contact opens the possibility for a non-invasive monitoring of glucose in the interstitial fluid

The Review of Scientific Instruments
Miguel PleitezWerner Mäntele

Abstract

The application of a novel open, windowless cell for the photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy of human skin is described. This windowless cavity is tuned for optimum performance in the ultrasound range between 50 and 60 kHz. In combination with an external cavity tunable quantum cascade laser emitting in the range from ~1000 cm(-1) to 1245 cm(-1), this approach leads to high signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) for mid-infrared spectra of human skin. This opens the possibility to measure in situ the absorption spectrum of human epidermis in the mid-infrared region at high SNR in a few (~5) seconds. Rapid measurement of skin spectra greatly reduces artifacts arising from movements. As compared to closed resonance cells, the windowless cell exhibits the advantage that the influence of air pressure variations, temperature changes, and air humidity buildup that are caused by the contact of the cell to the skin surface can be minimized. We demonstrate here that this approach can be used for continuous and non-invasive monitoring of the glucose level in human epidermis, and thus may form the basis for a non-invasive monitoring of the glucose level for diabetes patients.

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Citations

Jun 2, 2014·The Review of Scientific Instruments·P K DubeyChandrashekhar Gohiya
Apr 24, 2014·Sensors·Małgorzata Jędrzejewska-Szczerska
Oct 7, 2015·Der Radiologe·M Fournelle, S Tretbar
Apr 14, 2016·Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry·Julian Haas, Boris Mizaikoff
Apr 12, 2017·Sensors·Joo Yong SimBong Kyu Kim
Jul 20, 2014·Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology·Maarten J Scholtes-TimmermanSjaak J F van Veen
Apr 26, 2015·Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology·Andreas CaduffMark S Talary
Aug 18, 2017·Chemical Society Reviews·Andreas SchwaighoferBernhard Lendl
Mar 12, 2015·Journal of Biophotonics·Daria K TuchinaValery V Tuchin
Mar 14, 2020·The Analyst·Shazzad RasselDayan Ban
Apr 6, 2018·Frontiers in Endocrinology·Ara GhazaryanVasilis Ntziachristos
Nov 18, 2018·The Analyst·Katharina IsenseeWolfgang Petrich
Jan 16, 2021·Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy·Thomas G MayerhöferJürgen Popp
Dec 10, 2020·Sensors·Liu TangJen-Tsai Liu
Mar 23, 2021·Skin Research and Technology : Official Journal of International Society for Bioengineering and the Skin (ISBS) [and] International Society for Digital Imaging of Skin (ISDIS) [and] International Society for Skin Imaging (ISSI)·An-Qi ZhuHui-Xiong Xu

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Methods Mentioned

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