Wound ballistic evaluation of the Taser® XREP ammunition.

International Journal of Legal Medicine
Sebastian N KunzOliver Peschel


The Taser® eXtended Range Electronic Projectile (XREP®) is a wireless conducted electrical weapon (CEW) designed to incapacitate a person from a larger distance. The aim of this study was to analyze the ballistic injury potential of the XREP. Twenty rounds were fired from the Taser®X12 TM shotgun into ballistic soap covered with artificial skin and clothing at different shooting distances (1-25 m). One shot was fired at pig skin at a shooting distance of 10 m. The average projectile velocity was 67.0 m/s. The kinetic energy levels on impact varied from 28-52 J. Depending on the intermediate target, the projectiles penetrated up to 4.2 cm into the ballistic soap. On impact the nose assembly did not separate from the chassis, and no electrical activation was registered. Upon impact, a skin penetration of the XREP cannot be excluded. However, it is very unlikely at shooting distances of 10 m or more. Clothing and a high elasticity limit of the target body area can significantly reduce the penetration risk on impact.


Dec 1, 1978·Annals of Surgery·A W Carroll, C A Soderstrom
Jun 1, 1989·Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps·G J Cooper, D E Taylor
Aug 1, 1970·The Journal of Trauma·R V MoseleyD B Doty
Jun 19, 1998·The New England Journal of Medicine·M S LinkN A Estes
May 25, 1999·The Journal of Emergency Medicine·B Deady, G Innes
Jan 15, 2000·Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine·J AnkersenP Vanezis
Apr 20, 2001·Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps·L Cannon
Dec 31, 2005·Journal of Forensic Sciences·Cynthia A BirMarianne Wilhelm
Jun 13, 2006·Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology·Sandy L ChenAndreas K Lauer
Jul 17, 2007·Forensic Science International : Synergy·James R JauchemCharles W Beason
Aug 19, 2007·The Journal of Trauma·Dan DrobinB Thomas Kjellström
Dec 13, 2007·The Journal of Trauma·Andrew J DennisRoxanne R Roberts
Mar 31, 2009·Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine·Mark W Kroll
Jun 23, 2009·Forensic Science International : Synergy·Jeffrey D HoJames R Miner
Oct 5, 2010·Forensic Science International : Synergy·Donald M DawesJames R Miner
Jan 25, 2011·Injury Prevention : Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention·Tadesse HaileyesusJames A Mercy
Apr 6, 2011·The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology·James R JauchemDavid A Fines
May 7, 2011·Annals of Emergency Medicine·Mathieu PasquierBertrand Yersin

❮ Previous
Next ❯


Jul 29, 2015·Forensic Science International : Synergy·C CattaneoD Gibelli
Feb 3, 2018·Wiener medizinische Wochenschrift·Sebastian N Kunz, Jiri Adamec
Mar 14, 2019·The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology·Stephan Andreas BolligerRosa Maria Martinez

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.


Blastomycosis fungal infections spread through inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis spores. Discover the latest research on blastomycosis fungal infections here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.


Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.