XMAP215 is a microtubule nucleation factor that functions synergistically with the γ-tubulin ring complex

Nature Cell Biology
Akanksha ThawaniSabine Petry


How microtubules (MTs) are generated in the cell is a major question in understanding how the cytoskeleton is assembled. For several decades, γ-tubulin has been accepted as the universal MT nucleator of the cell. Although there is evidence that γ-tubulin complexes are not the sole MT nucleators, identification of other nucleation factors has proven difficult. Here, we report that the well-characterized MT polymerase XMAP215 (chTOG/Msps/Stu2p/Alp14/Dis1 homologue) is essential for MT nucleation in Xenopus egg extracts. The concentration of XMAP215 determines the extent of MT nucleation. Even though XMAP215 and the γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC) possess minimal nucleation activity individually, together, these factors synergistically stimulate MT nucleation in vitro. The amino-terminal TOG domains 1-5 of XMAP215 bind to αβ-tubulin and promote MT polymerization, whereas the conserved carboxy terminus is required for efficient MT nucleation and directly binds to γ-tubulin. In summary, XMAP215 and γ-TuRC together function as the principal nucleation module that generates MTs in cells.


May 25, 1989·Nature·A W Murray, Marc W Kirschner
Nov 1, 1987·The Journal of Cell Biology·D L Gard, Marc W Kirschner
Aug 24, 1995·Nature
Aug 12, 1998·The Journal of Cell Biology·Michelle MoritzKaren Oegema
Sep 30, 1998·Methods in Enzymology·Yixian ZhengT J Mitchison
Jul 28, 1999·Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton·R J VasquezL Cassimeris
Jun 15, 2000·Nature Cell Biology·Christiane Wiese, Yixian Zheng
Jun 15, 2000·Nature Cell Biology·Michelle MoritzDavid A Agard
Feb 7, 2001·The EMBO Journal·Andrei V PopovEric Karsenti
Aug 15, 2002·Current Biology : CB·Andrei V PopovEric Karsenti
Oct 24, 2002·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Nicolas CaudronOdile Valiron
Mar 16, 2005·Protein Expression and Purification·Song TanWilliam Selleck
Mar 29, 2006·The Journal of Cell Biology·Jawdat Al-BassamAnthony A Hyman
Oct 14, 2006·Journal of Cell Science·Christiane Wiese, Yixian Zheng
Jan 25, 2007·Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology·Jens Lüders, Tim Stearns
Sep 25, 2007·Molecular Cell·Kevin C Slep, Ronald D Vale
Oct 9, 2007·Biophysical Journal·Colin Echeverría AitkenJoseph D Puglisi
Jan 15, 2008·Cell·Gary J BrouhardAnthony A Hyman
Jul 22, 2008·Nature Methods·Khuloud JaqamanGaudenz Danuser
Apr 17, 2009·Molecular Biology of the Cell·Aaron C GroenTimothy J Mitchison
Oct 20, 2009·Current Biology : CB·Elisabetta BucciarelliMaria Patrizia Somma
May 15, 2010·Methods in Cell Biology·Christopher GellJonathon Howard
Dec 8, 2010·The Journal of Cell Biology·Yuk-Kwan ChoiRobert Z Qi
Feb 2, 2011·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Per O WidlundJonathon Howard
Aug 9, 2011·Journal of Structural Biology·Kathryn T ApplegateGaudenz Danuser
Aug 17, 2011·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Sabine PetryRonald D Vale
Oct 14, 2011·Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology·Justin M KollmanDavid A Agard
Jun 15, 2012·Molecular Biology of the Cell·Jawdat Al-BassamFred Chang
May 15, 2013·Nature Cell Biology·Marija ZanicJonathon Howard
Aug 7, 2013·The Journal of Cell Biology·Fiona E HoodStephen J Royle
Aug 27, 2013·Nature Cell Biology·Simone B ReberFrank Jülicher
Mar 19, 2014·Methods in Enzymology·Yuk-Kwan Choi, Robert Z Qi
May 9, 2014·Molecular Biology of the Cell·Pengfei LiuRobert Z Qi
Jun 24, 2014·Current Biology : CB·Martin WührMarc W Kirschner
Jun 27, 2014·Molecular Biology of the Cell·Jaime C FoxKevin C Slep
Jan 20, 2015·Nature Structural & Molecular Biology·Justin M KollmanDavid A Agard
May 15, 2015·Biomolecular NMR Assignments·Selena G BurgessMark Pfuhl
Jun 23, 2015·Nature Cell Biology·Michal WieczorekGary J Brouhard
Sep 1, 2015·Nature Cell Biology·Sabine Petry, Ronald D Vale
Mar 22, 2016·F1000Research·Ryoma Ohi, Marija Zanic
Mar 8, 2017·The Journal of Cell Biology·Raymundo Alfaro-AcoSabine Petry
May 18, 2017·The Journal of Cell Biology·Amy E Byrnes, Kevin C Slep
Aug 24, 2017·Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology·Johanna Roostalu, Thomas Surrey


Feb 10, 2019·Biomolecules·Margarida Moura, Carlos Conde
Feb 23, 2019·Nature·Germán Camargo OrtegaMagdalena Götz
May 1, 2019·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Valérie CampanacciBenoît Gigant
May 12, 2019·Journal of Cell Science·Sharol Schmidt, Andrei Smertenko
Jul 13, 2019·Cells·Vladimir Joukov, Arcangela De Nicolo
Jan 11, 2019·Genetics·Lionel Pintard, Bruce Bowerman
Jun 7, 2020·Cells·Robert BeckerFelix B Engel
Jul 30, 2020·Molecular Biology of the Cell·Brianna R KingTrisha N Davis
Apr 27, 2018·Nature Cell Biology·Jens Lüders
Jun 8, 2018·The Journal of Cell Biology·Jae-Geun SongSabine Petry
Jan 15, 2020·ELife·Raymundo Alfaro-AcoSabine Petry
Nov 16, 2018·Essays in Biochemistry·Nuo Yu, Niels Galjart
Oct 14, 2018·Essays in Biochemistry·Corinne A Tovey, Paul T Conduit
Aug 16, 2018·Science Signaling·Vladimir Joukov, Arcangela De Nicolo
May 9, 2019·ELife·Akanksha ThawaniSabine Petry
Oct 6, 2018·Essays in Biochemistry·Alexander James ZwetslootAnne Straube
Mar 27, 2019·Sensors·Keisuke HasegawaEvan Porter
Jan 16, 2020·Nature Communications·Matthew R King, Sabine Petry
Oct 14, 2020·Emerging Topics in Life Sciences·Tina Wiegand, Anthony A Hyman
Dec 7, 2020·Cytoskeleton·Joseph Y OngJorge Z Torres

Related Concepts

XMAP215 protein, Xenopus
Microtubule-Associated Protein 3
Plasma Protein Binding Capacity
TUBE1 gene
Xenopus laevis
Signal Transduction
Microtubule-Organizing Center
Xenopus laevis Proteins

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Synthetic Genetic Array Analysis

Synthetic genetic arrays allow the systematic examination of genetic interactions. Here is the latest research focusing on synthetic genetic arrays and their analyses.

Neural Activity: Imaging

Imaging of neural activity in vivo has developed rapidly recently with the advancement of fluorescence microscopy, including new applications using miniaturized microscopes (miniscopes). This feed follows the progress in this growing field.

Computational Methods for Protein Structures

Computational methods employing machine learning algorithms are powerful tools that can be used to predict the effect of mutations on protein structure. This is important in neurodegenerative disorders, where some mutations can cause the formation of toxic protein aggregations. This feed follows the latests insights into the relationships between mutation and protein structure leading to better understanding of disease.

Congenital Hyperinsulinism

Congenital hyperinsulinism is caused by genetic mutations resulting in excess insulin secretion from beta cells of the pancreas. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Epigenetic Memory

Epigenetic memory refers to the heritable genetic changes that are not explained by the DNA sequence. Find the latest research on epigenetic memory here.

Cell Atlas of the Human Eye

Constructing a cell atlas of the human eye will require transcriptomic and histologic analysis over the lifespan. This understanding will aid in the study of development and disease. Find the latest research pertaining to the Cell Atlas of the Human Eye here.

Femoral Neoplasms

Femoral Neoplasms are bone tumors that arise in the femur. Discover the latest research on femoral neoplasms here.

© 2021 Meta ULC. All rights reserved