Yolk Sac tumor differentiation in urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder: A case report and differential diagnosis

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Nadia Espejo-Herrera, Enric Condom Mundó

Abstract

Background: Yolk sac tumor (YST) is a germ cell neoplasm that arises predominantly in the gonads, but can also derive from somatic neoplasms in extragonadal locations. These latter cases have been documented in several organs, although reports from the urinary tract are limited. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a bladder urothelial carcinoma with a predominant component of YST differentiation.Case presentation: We present a unique case of a 76-year-old man with a recurrent urinary bladder tumor, initially interpreted as a high grade urothelial carcinoma with glandular differentiation. In the recurrent tumor, diverse histological patterns were identified, including glandular, hepatoid and sarcomatoid. This tumor showed positivity for AFP, GLP3 and SALL4, and negativity for CK7 and EMA. Fluorescent in situ hybridization study showed a polysomic pattern of chromosome 12. All these findings led to the final diagnosis of a YST derived from urothelial carcinoma. Conclusions: YST differentiation should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a high grade urothelial carcinoma, particularly when glandular and other unusual patterns are observed.

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